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OBJECTIVE Despite extensive evidence for genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, the identification of susceptibility genes and their variants has had limited success. To search for genes that contribute to diabetic nephropathy, a genome-wide association scan was implemented on the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes collection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
The androgen testosterone is essential for the Sertoli cell to support the maturation of male germ cells and the production of spermatozoa (spermatogenesis). In the classical view of androgen action, binding of androgen to the intracellular androgen receptor (AR) produces a conformational change in AR such that the receptor-steroid complex has high affinity(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiological and family studies have demonstrated that susceptibility genes play an important role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy, defined as persistent proteinuria or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To efficiently search for genomic regions harboring diabetic nephropathy genes, we(More)
An experiment was performed in which subjects retrieved members of noturol categories. Subjects used o variety of retrieval cues in this task, making knowledge retrieval o two-tiered process: First, contexts were generated in which category members ore likely to be found, ond second, these were used OS retrieval cues to produce the category members(More)
In congenital and acquired long QT type 2, women are more vulnerable than men to torsade de pointes. In prepubertal rabbits (and children), the arrhythmia phenotype is reversed; however, females still have longer action potential durations than males. Thus, sex differences in K(+) channels and action potential durations alone cannot account for(More)
Testosterone is essential to maintain spermatogenesis and male fertility. In the absence of testosterone stimulation, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. After withdrawal of testosterone, germ cells that have progressed beyond meiosis detach from supporting Sertoli cells and die, whereas mature sperm cannot be released from Sertoli(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor beta type (TGFbeta) superfamily and their receptors are expressed in the testis, and are believed to play important paracrine and autocrine roles during testicular development and spermatogenesis. The Smad proteins are downstream mediators for the family of TGFbeta growth factors. Smad2 and Smad3 are associated with(More)
Germ cell development within the mammalian testis requires testosterone stimulation of somatic Sertoli cells via interaction with intracellular androgen receptors (AR). AR expression levels undergo marked changes during spermatogenesis suggesting that the modulation of AR expression is an important mechanism to regulate Sertoli cell responsiveness to(More)