William H. Tolleson

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The human melanocytes of the skin, hair, eyes, inner ears, and covering of the brain provide physiologic functions important in organ development and maintenance. Melanocytes develop from embryonic neural crest progenitors and share certain traits with other neural crest derivatives found in the adrenal medulla and peripheral nervous system. The distinctive(More)
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced worldwide by Fusarium fungi, principally F. moniliforme. The fungus is present in virtually all harvested corn, but the toxins produced are variable. The toxins, especially fumonisin B1, cause mild to fatal diseases in animals, with peculiar species specificity for the dominant signs of toxicity. The mechanism of toxicity(More)
The potent toxins ricin, abrin, and other ribosome-inactivating proteins deadenylate a specific base in 28S ribosomal RNA that destroys ribosomes and leads to cell death. We have taken advantage of the fact that reverse transcriptase preferentially inserts an adenine opposite to an abasic site in RNA to create a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
Fumonisin B1 is associated with various animal and human carcinomas and toxicoses, including leukoencephalomalacia, hepatocarcinoma, pulmonary edema and esophageal carcinoma. We have examined the cellular effects of fumonisin B1 in vitro using cellular model systems relevant to potential human target tissues. Although fumonisin B1 has been described as a(More)
Fumonisin B1 stimulates apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. We examined the role of sphingolipid changes in fumonisin B1-stimulated apoptosis. Sphinganine accumulated rapidly, sphingosine levels remained unchanged, and ceramides decreased during fumonisin B1 exposure. Increased DNA fragmentation, decreased viability, and apoptotic morphology(More)
Biochanin A and formononetin are abundant in legumes. These proestrogenic isoflavones can be converted by 4'-O-demethylation to the more potent phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Incubation of biochanin A or formononetin with human liver microsomes resulted in 4'-O-demethylation and the production of additional metabolites. Three new hydroxylated(More)
The use of usnic acid as a weight loss agent is a safety concern due to reports of acute liver failure in humans. Previously we demonstrated that usnic acid induces apoptosis and cytotoxicity in hepatic HepG2 cells. We also demonstrated that usnic acid induces autophagy as a survival mechanism against its cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated and(More)
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is involved in the metabolism of many drugs. Extensive studies have demonstrated that genetic variants and endogenous and environmental factors play important roles in the expression of CYP2C19. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in controlling CYP2C19 expression has not been investigated completely. In the present study,(More)
We have used a model system of normal HKc and HKc immortalized by transfection with HPV16 DNA (HKc/HPV16) to investigate the effect of RA on the growth of HKc/HPV16 and the expression of the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7. These studies found that HKc/HPV16 are about 100-fold more sensitive than normal HKc to growth inhibition by RA in both clonal and mass(More)
We previously reported that human keratinocytes (HKc) immortalized by transfection with human papillomavirus type 16 DNA (HKc/HPV16) are more sensitive than normal HKc to growth inhibition by retinoic acid (RA), and that RA treatment of HKc/HPV16 inhibits HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA expression (L. Pirisi et al., Cancer Res., 52: 187-193, 1992). We now demonstrate that(More)