William H. Swartz

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Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979–2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979–1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El(More)
An in vitro perifusion system was used to investigate the spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) release from 10 human fetal (21-23 weeks of gestation) and 1 adult female pituitaries. The pattern of LH release from fetal pituitaries (n = 6) exhibited a remarkable pulsatile character with a mean (+/- SE) pulse interval of 12.7 +/- 1.7 min. The mean pulse(More)
During the 2003 SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) II, the fourteen-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was mounted on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD) during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values(More)
Direct observation of the Sun at large solar zenith angles during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II)/Validation of International Satellites and study of Ozone Loss (VINTERSOL) campaign by several instruments provided a rich dataset for the retrieval and analysis of line-of-sight column composition, intercomparison, and(More)
An in vitro perifusion system was used to investigate pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the fetal (20-23 weeks of gestation) and adult human mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Fetal human MBHs released GnRH in discrete pulses, with a periodicity of approximately 1 h. Adult human MBHs also released GnRH in a pulsatile manner, with a(More)
Extensive ozone measurements were made during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). We compare high-latitude line-of-sight (LOS) slant column ozone measurements from the NASA DC-8 to ozone simulated by forward integration of measurement-derived ozone fields constructed both with and without the assumption of horizontal(More)
An in-vitro perifusion system was used to investigate GnRH release from fetal (21-23 weeks gestation) human hypothalami in response to dopamine (DA) and the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol. Administration of 1 mumol/l DA during five perifusions in which 1 mumol/l haloperidol was added to the medium failed to alter basal GnRH release. In contrast DA(More)
Extensive ozone measurements were made during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). We compare high-latitude line-of-sight (LOS) slant column ozone measurements from the NASA DC-8 to ozone simulated by forward integration of measurement-derived ozone fields constructed both with and with-5 out the assumption of horizontal(More)
The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for mul-tiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and compar-5 isons to results from two satellite(More)
Direct observation of the Sun at large solar zenith angles during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II)/Validation of International Satellites and study of Ozone Loss (VINTERSOL) campaign by several instruments provided a rich dataset for the retrieval and analysis of line-of-sight column composition, intercom-5 parison, and(More)