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Our study analyzes the security and privacy properties of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Introduced to the U.S. market in 2003, this model of ICD includes pacemaker technology and is designed to communicate wirelessly with a nearby external programmer in the 175 kHz frequency range. After partially reverse-engineering the ICD's(More)
Protecting implantable medical devices against attack without compromising patient health requires balancing security and privacy goals with traditional goals such as safety and utility. Implantable medical devices monitor and treat physiological conditions within the body. These devices - including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs),(More)
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, we explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. We interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD(More)
I n 1982, the threat to the security of the world's drug supply was recognized when seven people died from taking Tylenol that had purposely been contaminated with cyanide. The scare spawned federal laws, regulatory modifications , and a revolution in drug packaging. These interventions greatly secured the billions of pills, capsules, tablets, and liquids(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the magnetic field strength of portable headphones and their potential to cause magnetic interference with implanted pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic field strength of portable headphones and to determine if they can cause(More)
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