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Our study analyzes the security and privacy properties of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Introduced to the U.S. market in 2003, this model of ICD includes pacemaker technology and is designed to communicate wirelessly with a nearby external programmer in the 175 kHz frequency range. After partially reverse-engineering the ICD's(More)
Protecting implantable medical devices against attack without compromising patient health requires balancing security and privacy goals with traditional goals such as safety and utility. Implantable medical devices monitor and treat physiological conditions within the body. These devices - including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs),(More)
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, we explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. We interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD(More)
PURPOSE To review the epidemiology, mechanisms, complications, predictors, prevention, and treatment of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE search of English-language reports published between 1966 and 2000 and a search of references of relevant papers. STUDY SELECTION Clinical and basic research studies on atrial(More)
CONTEXT Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) play a key role in the community resuscitation of persons with cardiac arrest and are of proven clinical benefit. Although AEDs are complex medical devices designed to function during life-threatening emergencies, little is known about their reliability. OBJECTIVES To determine the number and rate of AED(More)
Post-cardiac surgery atrial fibrillation (AF) places patients at risk for thromboembolism and stroke, while the surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass alter the multiple factors of coagulation and may increase the tendency to bleed. It is in the context of this complex clinical picture that the physician must make decisions regarding the risks and benefits of(More)
CONTEXT Unanticipated pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) generator malfunctions sometimes warrant recall by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite increasingly frequent device implantation, pacemaker and ICD recalls and safety alerts (advisories) remain poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES To determine pacemaker and ICD(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with advanced heart disease are at risk from sudden death; however, benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) may be limited as a result of early mortality from other causes. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict mortality within the first year after ICD implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS A(More)