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Our study analyzes the security and privacy properties of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Introduced to the U.S. market in 2003, this model of ICD includes pacemaker technology and is designed to communicate wirelessly with a nearby external programmer in the 175 kHz frequency range. After partially reverse-engineering the ICD's(More)
Protecting implantable medical devices against attack without compromising patient health requires balancing security and privacy goals with traditional goals such as safety and utility. Implantable medical devices monitor and treat physiological conditions within the body. These devices - including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs),(More)
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, we explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. We interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD(More)
CONTEXT Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) play a key role in the community resuscitation of persons with cardiac arrest and are of proven clinical benefit. Although AEDs are complex medical devices designed to function during life-threatening emergencies, little is known about their reliability. OBJECTIVES To determine the number and rate of AED(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive lines of radiofrequency (RF) lesions through infarct (MI) can ablate multiple and unstable ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Methods for guiding ablation that minimize unnecessary RF applications are needed. This study assesses the feasibility of guiding RF line placement by mapping to identify a reentry circuit isthmus. METHODS AND(More)
I n 1982, the threat to the security of the world's drug supply was recognized when seven people died from taking Tylenol that had purposely been contaminated with cyanide. The scare spawned federal laws, regulatory modifications , and a revolution in drug packaging. These interventions greatly secured the billions of pills, capsules, tablets, and liquids(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the magnetic field strength of portable headphones and their potential to cause magnetic interference with implanted pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic field strength of portable headphones and to determine if they can cause(More)
BACKGROUND Ventricular tachycardia (VT) isthmuses can be defined by fixed or functional block. During sinus rhythm, pace mapping near the exit of an isthmus should produce a QRS similar to that of VT. Pace mapping at sites proximal to the exit may produce a similar QRS with a longer stimulus-to-QRS interval (S-QRS). The aim of the study was to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Sprint Fidelis (Fidelis) implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads are prone to fractures that have caused adverse events, primarily inappropriate shocks, and a few reported deaths. More than 100 000 patients have Fidelis leads. No independent multicenter long-term performance information exists for this lead, and single-center studies suggest(More)
I mplantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have revolutionized the treatment of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. In the nearly 3 decades since the first human ICD implant, 1 millions of devices have been implanted worldwide and innumerable lives have been saved. Successful resuscitation of a potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmia by an ICD(More)