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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
OBJECTIVE Although many studies have found that childhood levels of body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) are associated with adult levels, it has been reported that childhood BMI is not associated with adult adiposity. We further examined these longitudinal associations. DESIGN Cohort study based on examinations between 1973 and 1996. SETTING Bogalusa,(More)
In this review, we address the natural history of obesity in children, the most promising family- and school-based approaches to the prevention of obesity, and the barriers and opportunities associated with secondary prevention. In childhood, the most important periods of risk appear to be the periods of adiposity rebound and adolescence. Caution regarding(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Overweight in adolescents may have deleterious effects on their subsequent self-esteem, social and economic characteristics, and physical health. We studied the relation between overweight and subsequent educational attainment, marital status, household income, and self-esteem in a nationally representative sample of 10,039 randomly(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have shown that girls who undergo menarche at a relatively young age tend to be more obese as adults. However, because childhood (pre-menarcheal) levels of weight and height are associated with an earlier menarche, the increased prevalence of adult obesity among early maturers may largely reflect the persistence of childhood(More)
Although obesity is increasing to epidemic proportions in many developed countries, some of these same countries are reporting substantial reductions in tobacco use. Unlike tobacco, food and physical activity are essential to life. Yet similar psychological, social, and environmental factors as well as advertising pressures influence the usage patterns of(More)
Although the caloric deficits achieved by increased awareness, policy, and environmental approaches have begun to achieve reductions in the prevalence of obesity in some countries, these approaches are insufficient to achieve weight loss in patients with severe obesity. Because the prevalence of obesity poses an enormous clinical burden, innovative(More)
We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for(More)