William H. Carter

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BACKGROUND Plasma treatment has improved the outcomes in adults with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We reviewed our experience in treating unselected patients to determine the clinical outcomes and to evaluate the treatments given in addition to plasma. METHODS A chart review of all cases of TTP and HUS in(More)
To evaluate health effects of chemical mixtures, such as multiple heavy metals in drinking water, we have been developing efficient and accurate hazard identification strategies. Thus, in this study, we determine the cytotoxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead, and characterize interactions among these metals in human epidermal keratinocytes. Three(More)
A pretreatment combination of physostigmine and azaprophen (6-methyl-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol-2,2-diphenylpropionate), a novel cholinolytic, was evaluated for its ability to minimize soman-induced incapacitation and lethality in guinea pigs. This was accomplished by using response surface methodology to model and analyze the combination, varying(More)
Isobolograms have been widely used to characterize the nature of the interaction between combinations of drugs or chemicals. Some authors have applied this technique without accounting for the variability in the data or without adjusting for multiple comparisons to the line of additivity. This paper develops a graphical procedure which takes into account(More)
The binary, ternary, quaternary, and quintary interactions of a five-component mixture of carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using response surface analyses are described. Initially, lung tumor dose-response curves in strain A/J mice for each of the individual PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F),(More)
The interaction index, isobologram and the appropriate contour of constant response of a dose response surface each offer essentially equivalent information regarding departures from additivity in a chemical combination. The benefit of relating the interaction index and isobolograms to a contour of a fitted dose response surface is that departures from(More)
Environmental exposures generally involve chemical mixtures instead of single chemicals. Statistical models such as the fixed-ratio ray design, wherein the mixing ratio (proportions) of the chemicals is fixed across increasing mixture doses, allows for the detection and characterization of interactions among the chemicals. In this study, we tested for(More)
Chinese hamster cells (V79) were treated with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) alone and in combination. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were quantified as measures of genotoxicity of the two agents. The combination experiment employed a factorial design in which cells were treated, in various concentration combinations,(More)
A predictive model for Listeria monocytogenes was developed using cells grown in different pH and milkfat levels before subsequent thermal inactivation in identical pH and milkfat conditions. Inactivation of the cells used combinations of temperature (55, 60, 65 degrees C), pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0), and milkfat (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%) in a complete 3 x 3 x 3 factorial(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significance because of its comparatively high heat resistance, zero tolerance in ready-to-eat foods, and growth at refrigeration temperatures. A 3 x 3 x 3 factorial study was done to determine the effects of milkfat (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%), pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0), and processing temperature (55 degrees C, 60 degrees(More)