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The red tide toxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis becomes airborne by the thrashing action of the surf and wind and induces cough, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, and sneezing in normal humans and wheezing in asthmatic patients. The mechanism of the contractile response induced by P. brevis toxin (PBTX) was investigated with isolated canine tracheal smooth(More)
An efficient procedure for preparing phytenic acid methyl ester, free of isomers, from phytol is reported. Phytyl phytenate and other isoprenoid wax esters were synthesized. Gas liquid chromatography of these wax esters and other compounds related to phytol and phytenic acid is described. The alkyl constituents of isoprenoid wax esters can be analyzed after(More)
Lipid classes from four species of mosses, Mnium cuspidatum, and Mnium medium from Minnesota, and Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from Alaska, were analyzed. The total lipids of all species contained 30-40% arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. However, the lipids from the Alaskan mosses contained about 75% neutral lipids (triacylglycerols,(More)
Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11, 14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the moss, Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize(More)
In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground(More)
Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a(More)
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic, nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, is not absorbed by the body, but its presence in the intestinal lumen increases fecal fat, sterol, and bile acid excretions and decreases intestinal cholesterol absorption, all of which may indirectly affect hepatic lipid metabolism. We measured the expression of(More)
Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However,(More)
The red tide toxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis ( PBTX ) may cause cough, sneezing, and asthma. Previous in vitro studies with isolated canine tracheal smooth muscle demonstrated that PBTX stimulates sodium channels of parasympathetic nerve endings and thus causes a contractile response. The present study investigated the mechanism of the PBTX effect on(More)