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Since Dicke's seminal paper on coherence in spontaneous radiation by atomic ensembles, superradiance has been extensively studied. Subradiance, on the contrary, has remained elusive, mainly because subradiant states are weakly coupled to the environment and are very sensitive to nonradiative decoherence processes. Here, we report the experimental(More)
Superradiance has been extensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s in the regime of superfluorescence, where a large number of atoms are initially excited. Cooperative scattering in the linear-optics regime, or "single-photon superradiance," has been investigated much more recently, and superradiant decay has also been predicted, even for a spherical sample(More)
We report the first realization of a guided quasicontinuous atom laser by rf outcoupling a Bose-Einstein condensate from a hybrid optomagnetic trap into a horizontal atomic waveguide. This configuration allows us to cancel the acceleration due to gravity and keep the de Broglie wavelength constant at 0.5 microm during 0.1 s of propagation. We also show that(More)
We realize a laser with a cloud of cold rubidium atoms as gain medium, placed in a low-finesse cavity. Three different regimes of laser emission are observed corresponding, respectively, to Mollow, Raman, and four-wave mixing mechanisms. We measure an output power of up to 300 microW and present the main properties of these different lasers in each regime.
We experimentally investigate the Bragg reflection of light at one-dimensionally ordered atomic structures by using cold atoms trapped in a laser standing wave. By a fine-tuning of the periodicity, we reach the regime of multiple reflection due to the refractive index contrast between layers, yielding an unprecedented high reflectance efficiency of 80%.(More)
Atoms can scatter light and they can also amplify it by stimulated emission. From this simple starting point, we examine the possibility of realizing a random laser in a cloud of laser-cooled atoms. The answer is not obvious as both processes (elastic scattering and stimulated emission) seem to exclude one another: pumping atoms to make them behave as an(More)
We address the problem of achieving an optical random laser with a cloud of cold atoms, in which gain and scattering are provided by the same atoms. The lasing threshold can be defined using the on-resonance optical thickness b0 as a single critical parameter. We predict the threshold quantitatively, as well as power and frequency of the emitted light,(More)
We study the propagation of a noninteracting atom laser distorted by the strong lensing effect of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) from which it is outcoupled. We observe a transverse structure containing caustics that vary with the density within the residing BEC. Using the WKB approximation, Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral formalism, and ABCD matrices, we(More)
BACKGROUND Written comments by medical student supervisors provide written foundation for grade narratives and deans' letters and play an important role in student's professional development. Written comments are widely used but little has been published about the quality of written comments. We hypothesized that medical students share an understanding of(More)