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We evaluated visual and vestibular contributions to vertical self motion perception by exposing subjects to various combinations of 0.2 Hz vertical linear oscillation and visual scene motion. The visual stimuli presented via a head-mounted display consisted of video recordings of the test chamber from the perspective of the subject seated in the oscillator.(More)
A cardinal feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is muscle hypertonicity, i.e. rigidity. Little is known about the axial tone in PD or the relation of hypertonia to functional impairment. We quantified axial rigidity to assess its relation to motor symptoms as measured by UPDRS and determine whether rigidity is affected by levodopa treatment. Axial rigidity(More)
Integration of sensory and motor inputs has been shown to be impaired in appendicular muscles and joints of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. As PD advances, axial symptoms such as gait and balance impairments appear, which often progresses to complete inability stand or walk unaided. The current study evaluates kinesthesia in the axial musculature of PD(More)
Recent behavioral experiments examining the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia have revealed inhibitory effects of strong tail shock, a stimulus commonly used as an unconditioned stimulus in studies of associative and nonassociative learning in Aplysia. We utilized a reduced preparation to perform a cellular analysis of tail shock-induced inhibition in the(More)
The pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of individuals of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris harboring polymorphid cystacanths was compared to the pattern seen in individuals not infected with acanthocephalans. Ventral nerve cords from both parasitized and nonparasitized amphipods showed the same bilateral pair of(More)
Although sensitization-related changes in the neural circuitry of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia are well studied, relatively few studies address the organization of the modulatory components of sensitization. In particular, it is not known whether individual modulatory loci can simultaneously influence multiple reflex circuits. There is, however, evidence(More)
Differential classical conditioning of the gill-withdrawal response (GWR) in Aplysia can be elicited by training in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) delivered to one side of the siphon (the CS+) is paired with a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US; tail shock), while a second conditioned stimulus (the CS-), delivered to a different siphon site, is unpaired(More)
Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of(More)
Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area(More)
This study intended to determine if an acute bout of soccer heading alters postural control and pronounced self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion. Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Each participant completed a baseline postural control assessment prior to heading. Participants either simulated (control group; CG) or(More)