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The aim of this study was to determine whether amyloid precursor protein (APP) is expressed in human adipose tissue, dysregulated in obesity, and related to insulin resistance and inflammation. APP expression was examined by microarray expression profiling of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes (SAC) and cultured preadipocytes from obese and nonobese(More)
CONTEXT Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Consistent with this mechanism of action, DPP-4 inhibitors improve glucose tolerance after(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Several studies have demonstrated that midlife obesity increases the risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, plasma 42-amino-acid amyloid-beta (Abeta42) levels appear to correlate with BMI. We recently demonstrated that adipocyte amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression is upregulated in obesity and correlates with insulin(More)
RATIONALE Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma; the reasons for this are poorly understood, although it is thought that inflammatory changes in adipose tissue in obesity could contribute to airway inflammation and airway reactivity in individuals who are obese. OBJECTIVES To determine if inflammation in adipose tissue in obesity is related to(More)
Enzymatic cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) produces amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides which form the insoluble cortical plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AβPP is post-transcriptionally processed into three major isoforms with differential cellular and tissue expression patterns. Changes in AβPP isoform expression may be indicative of(More)
Amyloid-β plaques are a defining characteristic of Alzheimer Disease. However, Amyloid-β deposition is also found in other forms of dementia and in non-pathological contexts. Amyloid-β deposition is variable among vertebrate species and the evolutionary emergence of the amyloidogenic property is currently unknown. Evolutionary persistence of a pathological(More)
Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), are altered in human obesity and may contribute to its pathology. TIMP-2 exerts MMP-dependent (MMP inhibition and pro-MMP-2 activation) and MMP-independent functions. To assess the role of TIMP-2 in a murine model of(More)
Antagonists of cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1, CNR1) promote weight loss and decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. While the endocannabinoid system may modulate islet hormone secretion, the cell-type expressing CB1 receptor in islets has not been fully resolved. In this study, we verified receptor gene expression in rodent islets and cell(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) bind to two receptors (NPRA-mediator of signaling; NPRC-clearance receptor) whose ratio, NPRR (NPRA/NPRC), determines the NP bioactivity. This study investigated the relationship of NP receptor gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle with obesity and glucose intolerance. Prospectively, the study also(More)