William G. Robertson

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A simple method for assessing the biochemical risk of forming uric acid and/or calcium-containing stones would be extremely useful for screening patients with urinary stone disease before and during their clinical management and follow-up. This paper describes a simplified procedure for calculating the overall biochemical risk of forming stones consisting(More)
The concept that calcium stone formation may be explained on the basis of a number of risk factors is developed. The main risk factors involved are shown to be calcium, oxalate, pH, acid mucopolysaccharides and uric acid. A method is described for calculating and combining the individual risk factors into a measure of the "relative probability" of forming(More)
The relative potencies of various modifiers of the crystallization of calcium oxalate (CaOx) were determined under "whole urine equivalent" conditions using a batch crystallizer. The system was used to measure changes in the degree of agglomeration of CaOx crystals produced spontaneously at a level of supersaturation within the range found in the urines of(More)
The effect was measured of incubating crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) with 10 per cent normal urine and 10 per cent artificial urine on the surface zeta potential (ZP) produced on the crystals by various inhibitors of the agglomeration of COM. These studies showed that natural urine contains some constituent, not present in the artificial(More)
This review compares and contrasts three mathematical models used to describe the flow of urine through the renal tubule and the composition of tubular fluid throughout the length of the nephron. From these data the relative supersaturation of tubular fluid with respect to calcium oxalate (CaOx) is calculated at various points along the tubule. This shows(More)
Hypercalciuria is common in patients who form calcium oxalate urinary stones and is considered by many to be the cause of the disorder. This review shows that there is little relationship between either the rate of stone-formation or calcium oxalate crystalluria and the urinary excretion of calcium. There is, however, a strong relationship between these(More)
Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important(More)
The factors affecting the urinary excretion of oxalate are critical to the risk of forming calcium oxalate stones. This article reviews the role of dietary and intestinal oxalate in determining the level of oxalate excreted in urine. The amount of oxalate available for absorption throughout the intestine is highly dependent on the state of oxalate (a) in(More)