William G. Rice

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The RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery in the nucleolus is the key convergence point that collects and integrates a vast array of information from cellular signaling cascades to regulate ribosome production that in turn guides cell growth and proliferation. Cancer cells commonly harbor mutations that inactivate tumor suppressors, hyperactivate(More)
Increased transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by RNA Polymerase I is a common feature of human cancer, but whether it is required for the malignant phenotype remains unclear. We show that rDNA transcription can be therapeutically targeted with the small molecule CX-5461 to selectively kill B-lymphoma cells in vivo while maintaining a viable(More)
Malignant transformation and maintenance of the malignant phenotype depends on oncogenic and non-oncogenic proteins that are essential to mediate oncogene signaling and to support the altered physiologic demands induced by transformation. Protein kinase CK2 supports key prosurvival signaling pathways and represents a prototypical non-oncogene. In this(More)
Deregulated ribosomal RNA synthesis is associated with uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation. RNA polymerase (Pol) I, the multiprotein complex that synthesizes rRNA, is activated widely in cancer. Thus, selective inhibitors of Pol I may offer a general therapeutic strategy to block cancer cell proliferation. Coupling medicinal chemistry efforts to tandem(More)
Herein we chronicle the discovery of CX-4945 (25n), a first-in-class, orally bioavailable ATP-competitive inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 in clinical trials for cancer. CK2 has long been considered a prime cancer drug target because of the roles of deregulated and overexpressed CK2 in cancer-promoting prosurvival and antiapoptotic pathways. These biological(More)
Strategies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection must contend with the obstacle of drug resistance. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers are prime antiviral targets because they are mutationally intolerant and are required both for acute infection and virion assembly. Nontoxic disulfide-substituted benzamides were(More)
In this article we describe the preclinical characterization of 5-(3-chlorophenylamino) benzo[c][2,6]naphthyridine-8-carboxylic acid (CX-4945), the first orally available small molecule inhibitor of protein CK2 in clinical trials for cancer. CX-4945 was optimized as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the CK2 holoenzyme (Ki = 0.38 nM). Iterative synthesis and(More)
The present study was undertaken to examine structural features of L-chicoric acid (3) which are important for potency against purified HIV-1 integrase and for reported cytoprotective effects in cell-based systems. Through a progressive series of analogues, it was shown that enantiomeric D-chicoric acid (4) retains inhibitory potency against purified(More)
Ser/Thr protein kinase CK2 regulates multiple processes that play important roles in the sensitivity of cancer to epidermal growth factor receptor targeting therapeutics, including PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling, Hsp90 activity, and inhibition of apoptosis. We hypothesized that top-down inhibition of EGFR, combined with lateral suppression of multiple oncogenic(More)
Hallmark deregulated signaling in cancer cells drives excessive ribosome biogenesis within the nucleolus, which elicits unbridled cell growth and proliferation. The rate-limiting step of ribosome biogenesis is synthesis of rRNA (building blocks of ribosomes) by RNA Polymerase I (Pol I). Numerous kinase pathways and products of proto-oncogenes can(More)