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Sativex is an endocannabinoid system modulator principally containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). During a 6-week randomised controlled trial, Sativex had a clinically relevant effect on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients self-titrated oromucosal Sativex to symptom relief or maximum tolerated dose(More)
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name,(More)
Three Cannabis Based Medicinal Extracts (CBMEs) for sublingual use became available in 2000. A total of 34 'N of 1' studies were undertaken using this novel therapy for patients with chronic, mainly neuropathic, pain and associated symptoms to explore efficacy, tolerability, safety and dosages. Three CBMEs (Delta9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol(More)
BACKGROUND Muscle spasticity is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), occurring in more than 60% of patients. OBJECTIVE To compare Sativex with placebo in relieving symptoms of spasticity due to MS. METHODS A 15-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 337 subjects with MS spasticity not fully relieved with(More)
BACKGROUND Open-label studies are not ideal for providing robust evidence for long-term maintenance of efficacy of medicines, especially where medicines provide symptom relief and where long-term use of a placebo may be problematic and not ethical. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the maintenance of efficacy of Sativex in subjects who have gained long-term(More)
Patient-controlled analgesia was introduced in a district general hospital in order to improve postoperative pain control. Techniques of management were developed with effectiveness, safety and practicality as the main objectives. An analysis of the first 1000 patients to use the system is presented. Problems were encountered with slow respiratory rate,(More)
To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) with regard to its relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders. We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology, and data from(More)
Throughout history, cannabis has been used as a natural therapeutic herb. Indeed the discovery of the remains of a young girl in Jerusalem who died in childbirth sometime around the third century AD, revealed residues of cannabis in the pelvic region. 97 This strongly suggests that cannabis was used in medical practice in early human civilizations. Cannabis(More)
TENS has been used by pregnant women for many years without any reported side effects for either the mother or baby. In fact, it has been suggested that TENS enhances placental blood flow (Enzelsberger et al. 1991). More recently there has been debate about the theoretical risk to the foetus by the electrical field produced by a TENS unit. In order to(More)
Damage to the trachea produced in dogs by large and small residual volume cuffs during 6 h of IPPV was compared using a specially designed endotracheal tube. The cuffs under evaluation were adjusted to exert similar average pressures on the tracheal wall, so that many of the variables believed responsible for tracheal injury were controlled. The true(More)