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The molecular immunopathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is poorly understood. Here, we characterize a mouse model for WNV using a subcutaneous route of infection and delineate leukocyte subsets and immunoregulatory factors present in the brains of infected mice. Central nervous system (CNS) expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and its… (More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a reemerging pathogen that causes fatal encephalitis in several species, including mouse and human. Recently, we showed that the chemokine receptor CCR5 is critical for survival of mice infected with WNV, acting at the level of leukocyte trafficking to the brain. To test whether this receptor is also protective in man, we determined… (More)
We have established a sensitive and specific real-time PCR method for detection of West Nile virus. Analysis of specimens obtained during the 1999 New York outbreak indicated the presence of viral sequences In cerebrospinal fluid of all of four Individuals with fatal outcomes, and in only one of four who survived.
We describe a model of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in C57BL/6 mice. A clinical isolate of the virus introduced intranasally replicated transiently to high levels in the lungs of these mice, with a peak on day 3 and clearance by day 9 postinfection. Viral RNA localized to bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Expression… (More)
Intracerebral infection of mice with mouse hepatitis virus, a member of the Coronaviridae family, reproducibly results in an acute encephalomyelitis that progresses to a chronic demyelinating disease. The ensuing neuropathology during the chronic stage of disease is primarily immune mediated and similar to that of the human demyelinating disease multiple… (More)
Intracranial infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar in pathology to the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). CD4(+) T cells are important in amplifying demyelination by attracting macrophages into the central nervous system (CNS) following viral… (More)