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Plasmodium falciparum can now be maintained in continuous culture in human erythrocytes incubated at 38 degrees C in RPMI 1640 medium with human serum under an atmosphere with 7 percent carbon dioxide and low oxygen (1 or 5 percent). The original parasite material, derived from an infected Aotus trivirgatus monkey, was diluted more than 100 million times by(More)
The method for continuous cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum has now been successfully applied to several strains from different geographical areas. It has been used for tests of antimalarial drugs, for studies of parasite-host cell interactions with special reference to sickle haemoglobin, and for the production of amounts of parasite sufficient for(More)
Highly potent and selective CYP2C19 inhibitors are not currently available. In the present study, N-3-benzyl derivatives of nirvanol and phenobarbital were synthesized, their respective (+)- and (-)-enantiomers resolved chromatographically, and inhibitor potencies determined for these compounds toward CYP2C19 and other human liver cytochromes P450 (P450s).(More)
Levetiracetam and its carboxylic metabolite (AcL) were tested for their potential inhibitory effect on 11 different drug metabolizing enzyme activities using human liver microsomes. The following specific assays were investigated: testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation [cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4)], coumarin hydroxylation (CYP2A6), (R)-warfarin hydroxylation(More)
The kinetics of sickling of malaria-infected red cells from humans with sickle cell trait were studied in vitro in an attempt to obtain direct experimental evidence for a selective advantage of the hemoglobin S heterozygote in a malarious region. The sickling rates of cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum and of non-infected cells were studied both in(More)
Aromatase is a microsomal cytochrome P450 that converts androgens to estrogens by three sequential oxidations. The isolation of the 19-hydroxy and 19-oxo androgens suggests that the first two oxidations occur at the C19 carbon. However, the mechanism of the third oxidation, which results in C10--C19 bond cleavage, has not been determined. Two proposed(More)
A medium has been developed in which certain cells from the gonads of female silkworms multiply and live for periods of 2 to 3 weeks. In such tissue cultures, strains of silkworm grasserie virus were maintained in successive passages up to the number of ten. The virus multiplied greatly and typical polyhedral bodies formed in the cells of infected cultures.
The theoretical basis for the direct linear plot [Eisenthal & Cornish-Bowden (1974) Biochem. J. 139, 715-720], a non-parametric statistical method for the analysis of data-fitting the Michaelis-Menten equation, was reinvestigated in order to accommodate additional experimental designs and to provide estimates of precision more directly comparable with those(More)
After condinous cultivation in the presence of chloroquine, an African strain of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparu, acquired resistance to the drug. The resistance was stable and comparable in vitro to that occurring naturally in a strain from Southeast Asia. This suggests that chloroquine resistance, absent until now in Africa, might arise in the(More)
To evaluate the interaction of phenylbutazone with racemic warfarin or R,S-(+/-)-warfarin in man, S-(-)-warfarin or levowarfarin was synthesized with (13)C label in the 2-position of the coumarin nucleus and added to [(12)C]R(+)-warfarin or dextrowarfarin to form a [(12)C/(13)C]pseudoracemate of warfarin. In six normal human subjects, a single oral dose of(More)