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Previous kinetic studies have identified a high-affinity (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylase present in human liver microsomes which appears to be responsible for the termination of warfarin's biological activity. Inhibition of the formation of (S)-7-hydroxywarfarin, the inactive, major metabolite of racemic warfarin in humans, is known to be the cause of several of(More)
Biotransformation reactions catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2) appear to play a significant role in both the metabolic clearance of drugs and the activation of environmental contaminants and drugs to toxic or carcinogenic species. Furafylline is a potent and selective inhibitor of P450 1A2 activity in human liver microsomes [Sesardic, D.,(More)
The purpose of the present studies was to define the role of the I359L allelic variant of CYP2C9 in the metabolism of the low therapeutic index anticoagulant warfarin, by performing in vitro kinetic studies with the two enantiomers of the drug. To obtain sufficient quantities of these variants to perform kinetic studies at physiologically relevant substrate(More)
The P450 2A6 catalyzed 7-hydroxylation of coumarin proceeded with a mean Km of 0.40 (+/-0.13) microM and Vmax of 6.34 nmol/nmol P450/min (36-fold variation) in microsomal preparations from a panel of 12 human livers. Substrate depletion was avoided during the kinetic determinations. 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of human(More)
Amiodarone decreased the total body clearance of both (R)- and (S)-warfarin in normal subjects but did not change volumes of distribution. Warfarin excretion products were quantified and clearance and formation clearance values calculated. Amiodarone and metabolites inhibited the reduction of (R)-warfarin to (R,S)-warfarin alcohol-1 and the oxidation of(More)
Consistent with expectations based on human in vitro microsomal experiments, administration of fluconazole (400 mg/day) for 6 days to six human volunteers significantly reduced the cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent metabolic clearance of the warfarin enantiomers. In particular, P4502C9 catalyzed 6- and 7-hydroxylation of (S)-warfarin, the pathway primarily(More)
Highly potent and selective CYP2C19 inhibitors are not currently available. In the present study, N-3-benzyl derivatives of nirvanol and phenobarbital were synthesized, their respective (+)- and (-)-enantiomers resolved chromatographically, and inhibitor potencies determined for these compounds toward CYP2C19 and other human liver cytochromes P450 (P450s).(More)
Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) is largely responsible for terminating the anticoagulant effect of racemic warfarin via hydroxylation of the pharmacologically more potent S-enantiomer to inactive metabolites. Mutations in the CYP2C9 gene result in the expression of three allelic variants, CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Both CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 exhibit(More)