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The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients and 19 matched controls participated. Patients were randomly(More)
First-generation antipsychotics have been associated with striatal volume increases. The effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the striatum are unclear. Moreover, SGAs may have neuroprotective effects on the hippocampus. Dose-dependent volumetric effects of individual SGAs have scarcely been investigated. Here we investigated structural(More)
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and tractography allow the non-invasive study of anatomical brain connectivity. However, a gold standard for validating tractography of complex connections is lacking. Using the porcine brain as a highly gyrated brain model, we quantitatively and qualitatively assessed the anatomical validity and reproducibility of in vitro(More)
Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and related multifiber reconstruction algorithms allow the study of in vivo microstructure and, by means of tractography, structural connectivity. Although reconstruction algorithms are promising imaging tools, high-quality diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) datasets for verification and validation of postprocessing and analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are(More)
Potentiation of serotonergic transmission increases cognitive flexibility, but can in other circumstances increase sensitivity to stressful environmental cues. The personality trait Openness to Experience reflects and is also associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. We hypothesized that the personality trait has an association with a biomarker(More)
The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system is involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning and animal studies have repeatedly shown that stimulation of the 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT4 R) facilitates memory and learning and further that the 5-HT4 R modulates cellular memory processes in hippocampus. However, any associations between memory functions(More)
RATIONALE Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter (SERT) protein is a key regulator in the(More)
Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are thought to be a marker of vascular pathology, and have been associated with motor and cognitive deficits. In the present study, an optimized artificial neural network was used as an automatic segmentation method to produce probabilistic maps of WMC in a clinical multi-center study. The neural network uses(More)
During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout(More)