William F. Bosron

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7-Ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxy-camptothecin (irinotecan; CPT-11) is a prodrug activated by carboxylesterase enzymes. We characterized the hydrolysis of CPT-11 by two recently identified human carboxylesterase (hCE) enzymes, hCE-1 and hCE-2. Km and Vmax for hCE-1 and hCE-2 are 43 microM and 0.53 nmol/min/mg protein and 3.4 microM and(More)
This article reports on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the April 2001 Experimental Biology meeting. Current developments in molecular-based studies into the structure and function of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases, and paraoxonases are described. This article covers mechanisms of(More)
Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil that is indicated for the treatment of breast and colorectal cancers. A three-step in vivo-targeted activation process requiring carboxylesterases, cytidine deaminase, and thymidine phosphorylase converts capecitabine to 5-fluorouracil. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze capecitabine's carbamate side chain to form(More)
A human liver carboxylesterase (hCE-2) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the benzoyl group of cocaine and the acetyl groups of 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin, and 6-monoacetylmorphine was purified from human liver. The purified enzyme exhibited a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a subunit mass of approximately 60 kDa. The(More)
It is now widely accepted that the various pharmacologic and addictive consequences of alcohol consumption are related to the tissue concentration of ethanol or its metabolic products. The oxidative metabolism of ethanol in liver is principally catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Both of these enzymes exist in multiple molecular(More)
Carboxylesterases metabolize ester, thioester, carbamate, and amide compounds to more soluble acid, alcohol, and amine products. They belong to a multigene family with about 50% sequence identity between classes. CES1A1 and CES2 are the most studied human isoenzymes from class 1 and 2, respectively. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of a(More)
Many Orientals lack the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) activity responsible for the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism. These individuals suffer the alcohol-flush reaction when they drink alcoholic beverages. The alcohol-flush reaction is the result of excessive acetaldehyde accumulation, and the unpleasant symptoms(More)
The psychomotor stimulant cocaine is inactivated primarily by hydrolysis to benzoylecgonine, the major urinary metabolite of the drug. A non-specific carboxylesterase was purified from human liver that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. In the presence of ethanol, the enzyme also catalyzes the(More)
The enzymes mainly responsible for ethanol degradation in humans are liver alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Polymorphisms occur in both enzymes, with marked differences in the steady-state kinetic constants. The Km-values for ethanol of ADH isoenzymes relevant for alcohol degradation range from 49 microM to 36 microM, and the(More)
Methylphenidate is an important stimulant prescribed to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It has two chiral centers, but most current commercial formulations consist of the racemic mixture of the threo pair of methylphenidate isomers (d-, l-threo-methylphenidate). The d-isomer is the pharmacologically active component. Numerous studies(More)