William Escobar

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Modulation of NMDA-mediated responses by oxidizing and reducing reagents has been described in a variety of neuronal preparations. Here, we report that NMDA-gated currents of oocytes expressing heteromeric NMDA receptors are also modulated by sulfhydryl redox reagents. Each cysteine residue in the NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit and each conserved NMDAR2 (NR2)(More)
The most commonly used drugs against pain act by inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COXs). Metamizol (dipyrone) inhibits the COXs and is widely used in Europe and Latin America as a non-opioid analgesic. One target of metamizol and other non-opioid analgesics is the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), where they trigger descending inhibition of spinal(More)
Metamizol (dipyrone) and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception by acting upon peripheral tissues and upon central nervous system structures, notably the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) and the spinal cord. Inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is prevented by spinal application of NSAIDs before the inflammation, but once(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) can be effectively treated by using different therapeutic alternatives such as detachable balloons and detachable coils, alone or in combination with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) or Onyx. Stents have also been used in an attempt to improve preservation of the parent artery while still occluding the(More)
Microinjection of dipyrone (metamizol) into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in rats causes antinociception. This is mediated by endogenous opioidergic circuits located in the PAG itself, in the nucleus raphe magnus and adjacent structures, and in the spinal cord. The clinical relevance of these findings, however, is unclear. Therefore, in the present(More)
The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual(More)
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