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There are 227 possible ways to meet the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, symptom occurrence is not random, and some symptoms co-occur significantly beyond chance. This raises the questions of whether all of the theoretically possible different ways of meeting the MDD criteria actually occur in patients, and whether some(More)
Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, affect and(More)
Attachment theory, developed by Bowlby to explain human bonding, has profound implications for conducting and adapting psychotherapy. We summarize the prevailing definitions and measures of attachment style. We review the results of three meta-analyses examining the association between attachment anxiety, avoidance, and security and psychotherapy outcome.(More)
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display an impoverished sense of self and representations of self and others that shift between positive and negative poles. However, little research has investigated the nature of representational disturbance in BPD. The present study takes a multimodal approach. A card sort task was used to(More)
Research suggests a relationship between the presence of fearful cognitions and panic disorder (PD) severity. With little existing evidence addressing the clinical significance of individual panic-cognitions, the current study examined presentation and impairment differences among 331 outpatients with PD according to whether they experience "fear of dying"(More)
Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others.(More)
BACKGROUND The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders.(More)
This meta-analysis synthesizes research on the relation between patient adult attachment style and patient-rated working alliance. A random-effects model was used to calculate the mean weighted product-moment correlation (r) for 24 studies (12 published in peer-reviewed journals and 12 unpublished doctoral dissertations) of individual outpatient therapy(More)