William E. Woodward

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We prospectively evaluated excretion of Giardia lamblia in children in day care centers in Houston by conducting two prevalence studies of 600 children enrolled in 30 DCC, day care centers, and an 18-month longitudinal study in 82 children in one center. In the two prevalence surveys, Giardia cysts were identified in 72 (21%) and 67 (26%) children,(More)
The patterns of bile acids and neutral sterols in the feces of five infants under 1 1/2 years of age, five children 4 years of age, and nine adult subjects without histroy of gastrointestinal diseases were studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Progressive changes in both bile acid and neutral sterol profiles were observed with maturation in infants and(More)
A major criticism of the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) in the treatment of diarrhea has been that the high sodium content of the solution might predispose the development of hypernatremia in infants not allowed access to additional free water and in whom glomerular filtration rate and urinary concentrating ability may be low. A study was(More)
Following the demonstration by Beeson that induced tolerance to the pyrogenic activity of bacterial endotoxins could be reversed by reticuloendothelial system (RES) "blockade" (1), emphasis has been placed on the importance of the rate of clearance of intravenously injected endotoxin by the RES. Most such studies have supported a positive correlation(More)
The incidence of diarrhea among children in day care centers is highest for those under three years of age. Limited studies indicate that diarrhea occurs more frequently among children enrolled at these centers than among age-matched children cared for at home or in family day care. Most reported outbreaks have been caused by rotavirus, Giardia, Shigella,(More)
Four studies were done with streptomycin-dependent Salmonella typhi as an oral, attenuated vaccine. Studies 1 and 3 employed freshly harvested vaccine, whereas studies 2 and 4 involved lyophilized vaccine. Five to eight doses (3 x 10(10)-10(11) organisms/dose) were given; oral streptomycin (1.0 g) was administered concomitantly in studies 2 and 3, with only(More)
A series of studies evaluated the efficacy of three categories of typhoid vaccines: killed organisms given parenterally and orally and living attenuated mutants given orally. Vaccinees and unvaccinated controls were challenged with a single strain of virulent Salmonella typhi. Control individuals with prior military service (i.e. mandatory parenteral(More)
Volunteers infected with Salmonella typhosa develop a remarkable hyperreactivity to the pyrogenic and subjective toxic activities of homologous (S. typhos) and heterologous (Pseudomonas) endotoxins. The present studies quantitate this augmented reactivity and demonstrate by three differing approaches that significant tolerance to these endotoxins can be(More)