William E. Swords

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Adherence and invasion are thought to be key events in the pathogenesis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The role of NTHi lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in adherence was examined using an LOS-coated polystyrene bead adherence assay. Beads coated with NTHi 2019 LOS adhered significantly more to 16HBE14 human bronchial epithelial cells than beads(More)
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) invades host cells by binding of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor via lipooligosaccharide (LOS) glycoforms containing phosphorylcholine (ChoP). The effect of NTHi infection on host cell signalling and its role in NTHi invasion was examined. The infection of human bronchial epithelial cells with NTHi(More)
Otitis media (OM) is among the leading diseases of childhood and is caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. As with most airway infections, it is now clear that OM infections involve multiple organisms. This study addresses the hypothesis that polymicrobial infection alters the(More)
Recently, biofilms have become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). In this study, we sought to learn more about the make-up of these structures and gain insight into biofilm regulation. Enzymic studies indicated that biofilm formation by GAS strain MGAS5005 required an extracellular protein and DNA(More)
Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during growth in host and nonhost environments. The organism can survive potentially lethal acid conditions (pH <4) if it is first able to adapt to mild or more moderate acid levels. The molecular events that occur during this adaptive process are collectively referred to as the acid(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) lipooligosaccharide htrB mutants exhibited greater than 45-fold-increased sensitivity to human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) compared to the wild type. Complementation by htrB in trans to acylation competence reversed this increased sensitivity. In contrast, NTHI was more susceptible to HBD-3 and showed no changes in(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a leading cause of acute and chronic otitis media, which are a major public health problem worldwide. The persistence of NTHi during chronic and recurrent otitis media infections involves multicellular biofilm communities formed within the middle-ear chamber. Bacterial biofilms resist immune clearance and(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of opportunistic respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and bronchitis. The persistence of NTHi in vivo is thought to involve bacterial persistence in a biofilm community. Therefore, there is a need for further definition of bacterial factors contributing to biofilm formation by NTHi.(More)
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is a common respiratory pathogen and an important cause of morbidity in humans. The non-typeable H. influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins are related proteins that mediate attachment to human epithelial cells, an essential step in the pathogenesis of disease. Secretion of these adhesins requires accessory proteins called(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes respiratory and systemic infections that are a major public health problem worldwide. It has been postulated that pneumococci persist in vivo in biofilm communities. METHODS In this study, we analyzed whether pneumococci form biofilms in vivo, and if so, whether biofilms correlated with bacterial(More)