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A species's niche width reflects a balance between the diversifying effects of intraspecific competition and the constraining effects of interspecific competition. This balance shifts when a species from a competitive environment invades a depauperate habitat where interspecific competition is reduced. The resulting ecological release permits population(More)
It has long been known that intraspecific variation impacts evolutionary processes, but only recently have its potential ecological effects received much attention. Theoretical models predict that genetic or phenotypic variance within species can alter interspecific interactions, and experiments have shown that genotypic diversity in clonal species can(More)
How does natural selection shape the structure of variance and covariance among multiple traits, and how do (co)variances influence trajectories of adaptive diversification? We investigate these pivotal but open questions by comparing phenotypic (co)variances among multiple morphological traits across 18 derived lake-dwelling populations of threespine(More)
Adaptive divergence between adjoining populations reflects a balance between the diversifying effect of divergent selection and the potentially homogenizing effect of gene flow. In most models of migration-selection balance, gene flow is assumed to reflect individuals' inherent capacity to disperse, without regard to the match between individuals'(More)
Variation in infection rate arises from variation in host exposure and resistance to parasites both within and among populations. All things being equal, phenotypes that increase exposure risk should covary positively with infection among individuals. It might therefore be expected that populations with mean phenotypes that increase exposure might also have(More)
Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are of great interest to biologists because of their important role in immunity and disease, and their extremely high levels of genetic diversity. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are quickly becoming the method of choice for high-throughput genotyping of multi-locus templates like(More)
Symbiont occurrence is influenced by host occurrence and vice versa, which leads to correlations in host-symbiont distributions at multiple levels. Interactions between co-infecting symbionts within host individuals can cause correlations in the abundance of two symbiont species across individual hosts. Similarly, interactions between symbiont transmission(More)
Similar to Agrobacterium tumerfaciens, Agrobacterium rhizogenes can transfer foreign DNAs into plant cells based on the autonomous root-inducing (Ri) plasmid. A. rhizogenes can cause hairy root formation on plant tissues and form composite plants after transformation. On these composite plants, some of the regenerated roots are transgenic, carrying the wild(More)
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