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When N,N'-didansyl cystine binds to the cell membranes of vertebrate rods and cones its fluorescence efficiency increases about 20-fold. The entire outer segments of living cones become brilliantly fluorescent. Stained live rods, as well as most freshly detached outer segments, are only weakly fluorescent, but they become brightly fluorescent within a few(More)
Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA is a required step for viral replication. Integrase, the virus-encoded enzyme important for integration, has not yet been exploited as a target for clinically useful inhibitors. Here we report on the identification of new polyhydroxylated aromatic inhibitors of integrase including ellagic(More)
Current pharmacological agents for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection include drugs targeted against HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV protease. An understudied therapeutic target is HIV integrase, an essential enzyme that mediates integration of the HIV genome into the host chromosome. The dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) and the dicaffeoyltartaric(More)
The dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) and dicaffeoyltartaric acids (DCTAs) are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase. They also inhibit HIV-1 replication at nontoxic concentrations. Since integrase is an excellent target for anti-HIV therapy, structure-activity relationships were employed to synthesize(More)
3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) that is not found in intact plant of lettuce leaves was isolated from the cultured cells. The intact plant produced chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid: L-CCA) as well as chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid: 3-CQA) as the major metabolites. After subculturing of the cells for 40 days, the amount of 3,4,5-TCQA(More)
Isolated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-infected human lymphocytes in culture have been imaged for the first time by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Purified virus particles spread on glass substrates are roughly spherical, reasonably uniform, though pleomorphic in appearance, and have diameters of about 120 nm. Similar particles are also seen on(More)
L-Chicoric acid is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase in vitro and of HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Following 3 months of selection in the presence of increasing concentrations of L-chicoric acid, HIV-1 was completely resistant to the compound. Introduction of the mutant integrase containing a single(More)
HIV-1 replication depends on the viral enzyme integrase that mediates integration of a DNA copy of the virus into the host cell genome. This enzyme represents a novel target to which antiviral agents might be directed. Three compounds, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1-methoxyoxalyl-3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and L-chicoric acid, inhibit HIV-1 integrase in(More)
In addition to their antibacterial activities, certain antimicrobial peptides inactivate enveloped viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To determine whether peptide bactericidal activities are predictive of antiviral activity, the anti-HIV properties of recombinant human alpha-defensin 5, mouse alpha-defensins, cryptdins (Crp) 3 and 4,(More)
Integration of a cDNA copy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome is mediated by an HIV-1-encoded enzyme, integrase (IN), and is required for productive infection of CD4+ lymphocytes. It had been shown that 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and two analogues were potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN in vitro. To determine whether the inhibition of(More)