William E. McIlroy

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Studies are reviewed, predominantly involving healthy humans, on gain changes in spinal reflexes and supraspinal ascending paths during passive and active leg movement. The passive movement research shows that the pathways of H reflexes of the leg and foot are down-regulated as a consequence of movement-elicited discharge from somatosensory receptors,(More)
Symmetry is a gait characteristic that is increasingly measured and reported, particularly in the stroke patient population. However, there is no accepted standard for assessing symmetry making it difficult to compare across studies and establish criteria to guide clinical decision making. This study compares the most common expressions of spatiotemporal(More)
Volitional step initiation invariably includes a medio-lateral anticipatory postural adjustment (ML APA), which causes the center of mass (COM) to be propelled toward the stance-limb side prior to the lifting of the swing foot. The present study examined whether this type of anticipatory control plays a functional role in maintaining lateral stability(More)
The role of plantar pressure sensation in controlling compensatory stepping was explored via hypothermic anesthesia of the foot soles, in 10 healthy young adults. Stepping reactions were evoked by unpredictable platform translation in forward, backward and lateral directions. The findings suggest three specific direction- and phase-dependent roles for the(More)
This study investigated the effects of postural set on the cortical response evoked by an external perturbation to human upright stance. Postural set was manipulated by providing either predictable or unpredictable whole body perturbations which required balance corrections to maintain upright stability. Unpredictable perturbations evoked a large negative(More)
Modulation of soleus H-reflex magnitude over a cycle of leg movement and the adjustment of controls to account for it were explored. During pedalling, H-reflex magnitudes in all nine subjects were highest in the power producing phase and lowest in recovery. Stimulation intensity was standardized. Compared to sitting, these reflexes were significantly(More)
Previous studies of compensatory stepping, in response to postural perturbation, have focussed on forward or backward stepping; however, the ability to step in other directions is of equal functional importance, since the perturbations encountered in daily life may often include a lateral component. The primary objective of this study was to determine how(More)
Grasping, counterbalancing and protective arm movements are an important defence against external postural perturbation, but are commonly constrained in studies of postural control. We measured muscle activity at the shoulder, and the lower leg, during unconstrained responses to platform translation. Results revealed very early activation in shoulder(More)
BACKGROUND Lateral falls are common in older adults and are associated with an elevated risk of hip fracture, compared with falls in other directions. Although rapid stepping movements can play an important functional role in maintaining balance, control of lateral stepping is a complex and demanding motor task. This study examined whether there are(More)
Healthy young adults (n = 39) were asked to perform four different secondary cognitive tasks during quiet unperturbed stance, in order to investigate the influence of physiological arousal and attention distraction on the control of spontaneous postural sway. During each task, postural activity was quantified in terms of center-of-pressure displacement,(More)