William E Kraus

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BACKGROUND Increased physical activity is related to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly because it leads to improvement in the lipoprotein profile. However, the amount of exercise training required for optimal benefit is unknown. In a prospective, randomized study, we investigated the effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on(More)
This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the contribution of probe velocity, indentation depth, and the assumed shape of the probe were examined.(More)
The effect of differentiation on the transverse mechanical properties of mammalian myocytes was determined by using atomic force microscopy. The apparent elastic modulus increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3 kPa for undifferentiated myoblasts to 45.3 +/- 4.0 kPa after 8 days of differentiation (P < 0.05). The relative contribution of viscosity, as determined from the(More)
The adult heart lacks reserve cardiocytes and cannot regenerate. Therefore, a large acute myocardial infarction often develops into congestive heart failure. To attempt to prevent this progression, we transplanted skeletal myoblasts into cryoinfarcted myocardium of the same rabbits (autologous transfer), monitored cardiac function in vivo for two to six(More)
on behalf of the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Physical activity enhances insulin action in obese/overweight individuals. However, the exercise prescription required for the optimal enhancement is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training consisting of vigorous-intensity activity would enhance insulin sensitivity more substantially than moderate-intensity(More)
Ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, a lipid-activated transcription factor that regulates expression of beta-oxidative genes, results in profound metabolic abnormalities in liver and heart. In the present study we used PPAR alpha knockout (KO) mice to determine whether this transcription factor is essential for regulating(More)
The concept of "metabolic inflexibility" was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a core component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular tools may provide insight into cardiovascular risk. We assessed whether metabolites discriminate coronary artery disease (CAD) and predict risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed mass-spectrometry-based profiling of 69 metabolites in subjects from the CATHGEN biorepository. To evaluate discriminative(More)
A susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) has been mapped to chromosome 3q13-21 in a linkage study of early-onset CAD. We completed an association-mapping study across the 1-LOD-unit-down supporting interval, using two independent white case-control data sets (CATHGEN, initial and validation) to evaluate association under the peak.(More)