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The effect of differentiation on the transverse mechanical properties of mammalian myocytes was determined by using atomic force microscopy. The apparent elastic modulus increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3 kPa for undifferentiated myoblasts to 45.3 +/- 4.0 kPa after 8 days of differentiation (P < 0.05). The relative contribution of viscosity, as determined from the(More)
This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the contribution of probe velocity, indentation depth, and the assumed shape of the probe were examined.(More)
The adult heart lacks reserve cardiocytes and cannot regenerate. Therefore, a large acute myocardial infarction often develops into congestive heart failure. To attempt to prevent this progression, we transplanted skeletal myoblasts into cryoinfarcted myocardium of the same rabbits (autologous transfer), monitored cardiac function in vivo for two to six(More)
Although exercise improves individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS), there is little research on the effect of exercise on MS as a whole. The objective of this study was to determine how much exercise is recommended to decrease the prevalence of MS. Of 334 subjects randomly assigned, 227 finished and 171 (80 women, 91 men) had complete data for(More)
A susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) has been mapped to chromosome 3q13-21 in a linkage study of early-onset CAD. We completed an association-mapping study across the 1-LOD-unit-down supporting interval, using two independent white case-control data sets (CATHGEN, initial and validation) to evaluate association under the peak.(More)
Physical activity enhances insulin action in obese/overweight individuals. However, the exercise prescription required for the optimal enhancement is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training consisting of vigorous-intensity activity would enhance insulin sensitivity more substantially than moderate-intensity(More)
Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of insulin action. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether plasma adiponectin is altered in conjunction with enhanced insulin action with exercise training. An insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and fasting levels of glucose, insulin, and(More)
Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more(More)
Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful predictor of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In 473 sedentary adults, all whites, from 99 families of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, the heritability of gains in maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2max)) after exposure to a standardized 20-wk exercise program was(More)
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in a failure to adequately supply blood and oxygen (O(2)) to working tissues and presents as claudication pain during walking. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health and function. Plasma nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is a marker of vascular NO production but may also be a protected circulating(More)