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We show that intermediate-sized filaments reconstituted from human epidermal keratins appear unraveled in the presence of phosphate ions. In such unraveling filaments, up to four "4.5-nm protofibrils" can be distinguished, which are helically twisted around each other in a right-handed sense. Lowering the pH of phosphate-containing preparations causes the(More)
An immunoreactive analogue of erythrocyte spectrin has been purified from brain membranes. This protein co-sediments with and cross-links actin filaments, associates with spectrin-binding sites on erythrocyte membranes, and has been visualized by rotary shadowing as an extended, flexible rod. The brain spectrin comprises 3% of the total membrane protein,(More)
Using electron microscopy, we have visualized the substructure of human von Willebrand factor (vWf) purified by two different approaches. vWf multimers, which appear as flexible strands varying in length up to 2 micron, consist of dimeric units (protomers) polymerized linearly in an end-to-end fashion through disulfide bonds. Examination of small multimers(More)
To test the validity of a proposed two step fibrin assembly mechanism and directly visualize the molecular species present at various stages of fibrin formation, we have carried out an electron microscopic investigation. Assembly conditions duplicated those of a recent light scattering study and specimens were prepared at different time points with the use(More)
Electron micrographs of negatively stained actin filament paracrystals and single-layered filament rafts showing different interfilament spacings have been studied and three-dimensional reconstructions have been computed from them. Lateral ordering of the filaments in rafts was lost when interfilament spacings exceeded 8.5 nm, suggesting this distance as an(More)
We have compared the appearance and preservation of molecular and supramolecular structures in preparations that were dried in vacuo at room temperature or freeze-dried. Fibrinogen and brain spectrin molecules appear similar in both types of preparation provided that drying at room temperature is performed in the presence of glycerol, which results in an(More)
We have studied the functions of contractile proteins in Acanthamoeba by a combination of structural, biochemical and physiological approaches. We used electron microscopy and image processing to determine the three-dimensional structure of actin and the orientation of the molecule in the actin filament. We measured the rate constants for actin filament(More)
Recent developments in specimen preparation and image processing techniques have made it possible to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins by electron microscopy. Periodic supramolecular aggregates of the protein under investigation are requiring to minimize radiation damage and to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of structural detail.(More)
We identified the two-stranded fibrin protofibril and studied its structure in electron micrographs of negatively stained specimens. Based on these images and on considerations of symmetry, we constructed a model of the protofibril in which the two strands of trinodular fibrin molecules are related by a two-fold screw axis between the strands and two-fold(More)