William E. Fowler

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We show that intermediate-sized filaments reconstituted from human epidermal keratins appear unraveled in the presence of phosphate ions. In such unraveling filaments, up to four "4.5-nm protofibrils" can be distinguished, which are helically twisted around each other in a right-handed sense. Lowering the pH of phosphate-containing preparations causes the(More)
An immunoreactive analogue of erythrocyte spectrin has been purified from brain membranes. This protein co-sediments with and cross-links actin filaments, associates with spectrin-binding sites on erythrocyte membranes, and has been visualized by rotary shadowing as an extended, flexible rod. The brain spectrin comprises 3% of the total membrane protein,(More)
Electron micrographs of negatively stained actin filament paracrystals and single-layered filament rafts showing different interfilament spacings have been studied and three-dimensional reconstructions have been computed from them. Lateral ordering of the filaments in rafts was lost when interfilament spacings exceeded 8.5 nm, suggesting this distance as an(More)
We describe a method for the induction of different polymorphic forms of actin filament paracrystals. This polymorphism is probably based on differences in the stagger and/or polarity of adjacent filaments in single-layered paracrystals and by superposition of different layers in multilayered paracrystals. The helical parameters defining the filament(More)
We show that freeze-dried actin filaments which have been rotary shadowed with a light coat of platinum appear very similar in morphology and width to negatively-stained filaments. The addition of a thicker coat of platinum to such preparations gives the actin filaments a different morphology and width, which are similar to those of the rotary-shadowed,(More)
In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD) stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C) circuits called ''bricks'' that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver $1 MA current pulse with a rise time of $100(More)
A retrospective medical record review was conducted of 173 consecutive children hospitalized for acquired brain injuries on a specialized pediatric rehabilitation service. The chart review identified children who developed movement disorders with acquired brain injuries: 8 with status epilepticus, 2 with trauma, and 1 with anoxia. Movement disorders were(More)
LTD is a new method for constructing high-current, During the last few years Sandia is actively pursuing high-voltage pulsed accelerators [1]. The salient feature the development of new accelerators based on the novel of the approach is switching and inductively adding the technology of Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). This pulses at low voltage straight(More)
—Most of the modern high-current high-voltage pulsed power generators require several stages of pulse conditioning (pulse forming) to convert the multimicrosecond pulses of the Marx generator output to the 40–300-ns pulses required by a number of applications including X-ray radiography, pulsed high-current linear accelerators, Z-pinch, isentropic(More)