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To date, all altered patterns of seasonal interactions observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warming during the latter half of the 20th century are explicable as variable expressions of plastic phenotypes. Over the last 30 years, the genetically controlled photoperiodic response of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia(More)
Only model organisms live in a world of endless summer. Fitness at temperate latitudes reflects the ability of organisms in nature to exploit the favorable season, to mitigate the effects of the unfavorable season, and to make the timely switch from one life style to the other. Herein, we define fitness as Ry, the year-long cohort replacement rate across(More)
We determine the contribution of composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects to the genetic divergence of photoperiodic response along latitudinal, altitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed widespread epistasis as well as additive and dominance(More)
A wide variety of higher plants, vertebrates, and arthropods use the length of day to synchronize growth, development, reproduction , dormancy, and migration with the changing seasons. In the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, critical photoperiod mediating the onset and maintenance of larval diapause has evolved about 10 standard deviations in mean(More)
Many plants and animals use the length of day or photoperiod to cue their seasonal patterns of development, reproduction, dormancy, and migration. Among temperate arthropods, the median or critical photoperiod increases with latitude or altitude. Concomitantly, in beetles, moths, mites, flies, and mosquitoes, there is a declining expression of a rhythmic,(More)
Expression of the circadian rhythm gene timeless was investigated in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Coq.), and was found to vary with time of day, instar of diapause, and latitude of origin. The temporal pattern of timeless expression differed between the two diapausing instars and was significantly higher in southern (38-40 degrees N) than(More)
The primary nonbiological result of recent rapid climate change is warming winter temperatures, particularly at northern latitudes, leading to longer growing seasons and new seasonal exigencies and opportunities. Biological responses reflect selection due to the earlier arrival of spring, the later arrival of fall, or the increasing length of the growing(More)
The distinction between model and nonmodel organisms is becoming increasingly blurred. High-throughput, second-generation sequencing approaches are being applied to organisms based on their interesting ecological, physiological, developmental, or evolutionary properties and not on the depth of genetic information available for them. Here, we illustrate this(More)