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To date, all altered patterns of seasonal interactions observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warming during the latter half of the 20th century are explicable as variable expressions of plastic phenotypes. Over the last 30 years, the genetically controlled photoperiodic response of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia(More)
Only model organisms live in a world of endless summer. Fitness at temperate latitudes reflects the ability of organisms in nature to exploit the favorable season, to mitigate the effects of the unfavorable season, and to make the timely switch from one life style to the other. Herein, we define fitness as Ry, the year-long cohort replacement rate across(More)
Mosquito populations in tree holes in northern Florida (30.6° N lat.), USA are held below their carrying capacities by a self-limiting, cannabalistic predator. Within tree holes, extinctions and reinvasions are common; in the system as a whole, extinctions and immigrations occur without regard to community composition, tree-hole size or stability, or(More)
We determine the contribution of composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects to the genetic divergence of photoperiodic response along latitudinal, altitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed widespread epistasis as well as additive and dominance(More)
The distinction between model and nonmodel organisms is becoming increasingly blurred. High-throughput, second-generation sequencing approaches are being applied to organisms based on their interesting ecological, physiological, developmental, or evolutionary properties and not on the depth of genetic information available for them. Here, we illustrate this(More)
In southeastern North America (North Florida, USA), the duration, frequency, and timing of drought differentially affect the survivorship of pre-adult tree-hole mosquitoes. Drought affects survivorship both by the direct action of dehydration on developing larvae and pupae and by the indirect modulation of predation. The drought-susceptible species,(More)
Many plants and animals use the length of day or photoperiod to cue their seasonal patterns of development, reproduction, dormancy, and migration. Among temperate arthropods, the median or critical photoperiod increases with latitude or altitude. Concomitantly, in beetles, moths, mites, flies, and mosquitoes, there is a declining expression of a rhythmic,(More)
A wide variety of higher plants, vertebrates, and arthropods use the length of day to synchronize growth, development, reproduction , dormancy, and migration with the changing seasons. In the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, critical photoperiod mediating the onset and maintenance of larval diapause has evolved about 10 standard deviations in mean(More)