William E. Bernal

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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of serious liver disease. The antimicrobial agent flucloxacillin is a common cause of DILI, but the genetic basis for susceptibility remains unclear. We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study using 866,399 markers in 51 cases of flucloxacillin DILI and 282 controls matched for sex and ancestry.(More)
Acute-on-chronic liver failure combines an acute deterioration in liver function in an individual with pre-existing chronic liver disease and hepatic and extrahepatic organ failures, and is associated with substantial short-term mortality. Common precipitants include bacterial and viral infections, alcoholic hepatitis, and surgery, but in more than 40% of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive critical illness with high mortality. Complex intensive care unit (ICU) protocols and emergency liver transplantation (ELT) are now often available, but rarity and severity of illness have limited its study and evidence-base for care. We reviewed patients treated over a 35-year period at a(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Though emergency liver transplantation (ELT) is an established treatment for severe acute liver failure (ALF), outcomes are inferior to elective surgery. Despite prioritization, many patients deteriorate, becoming unsuitable for ELT. METHODS We examined a single-centre experience of 310 adult patients with ALF registered for ELT over a(More)
Acute liver failure (ALF) shares striking similarities with septic shock where a decrease in HLA-DR expression on monocytes is associated with disease severity and predicts outcome. We investigated monocyte HLA-DR expression in ALF in relation to inflammatory mediator levels and clinical outcome. Monocyte HLA-DR expression was determined in 50 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with cirrhosis are prone to infection which is a frequent precipitant of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Clinical studies have examined the importance of inflammation and infection in modulating the manifestation of symptoms of HE in acute liver failure and patients with cirrhosis and minimal/low grade HE. It would be logical to(More)
BACKGROUND Although the King's College Hospital (KCH) selection criteria for emergency liver transplantation in paracetamol-induced acute liver failure are widely used, strategies to improve sensitivity and facilitate earlier transplantation are required. We investigated the use of arterial blood lactate measurement for the identification of transplantation(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS High levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha are associated with an increased risk of severe encephalopathy in acute liver failure, and experimental studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a role in the development of acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced liver injury and associated multiple organ failure. Inter-individual(More)
Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver transplantation (ELT) is an established treatment option. These(More)
The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was determined in a community-based sample in innercity London where socioeconomic conditions were expected to result in a high prevalence of antibodies to HAV, and in which the presence of immigrants from the developing world pose a risk of imported infection of both(More)