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Improvements in purification of membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) have resulted in preparations of pMMO with activities more representative of physiological rates: i.e., >130 nmol.min(-1).mg of protein(-1). Altered culture and assay conditions, optimization of the detergent/protein ratio, and simplification of the purification procedure were(More)
The interaction between carbon monoxide and the CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. When the enzyme reacts with CO, a paramagnetic complex is formed which previously was shown, by isotope substitution, to be due to a nickel-carbon species. In this paper, we demonstrate that iron is also a(More)
The prion protein (PrP) binds divalent copper at physiologically relevant conditions and is believed to participate in copper regulation or act as a copper-dependent enzyme. Ongoing studies aim at determining the molecular features of the copper binding sites. The emerging consensus is that most copper binds in the octarepeat domain, which is composed of(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the prion protein (PrP) plays a role in copper metabolism in the central nervous system. The N-terminal region of human PrP contains four sequential copies of the highly conserved octarepeat sequence PHGGGWGQ spanning residues 60-91. This region selectively binds divalent copper ions (Cu(2+)) in vivo. To elucidate the specific(More)
Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is regulated through the assembly/disassembly of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, which interconverts IRP1 with cytosolic aconitase. A genetic screen to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains bearing mutations in genes required for the conversion of IRP1 to c-aconitase led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized,(More)
The prion protein (PrP) binds Cu2+ in its N-terminal octarepeat domain. This unusual domain is comprised of four or more tandem repeats of the fundamental sequence PHGGGWGQ. Previous work from our laboratories demonstrates that at full copper occupancy, each HGGGW segment binds a single Cu2+. However, several recent studies suggest that low copper occupancy(More)
Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can reduce a diverse array of compounds under anaerobic conditions, including manganese and iron oxides, fumarate, nitrate, and many other compounds. These reductive processes are apparently linked to a complex electron transport system. Chromium (Cr) is a toxic and mutagenic metal and bacteria could potentially be utilized to(More)
Off-patent drugs with previously unrecognized anticancer activity could be rapidly repurposed for this new indication. To identify such compounds, we conducted 2 independent cell-based chemical screens and identified the antimicrobial ciclopirox olamine (CPX) in both screens. CPX decreased cell growth and viability of malignant leukemia, myeloma, and solid(More)
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial(More)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds (e.g., chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells, where they are reduced to reactive Cr species that also facilitate reactive oxygen species generation. Recent studies demonstrated inhibition and oxidation of the thioredoxin system, with greater effects on mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx2). This implies(More)