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Stable engraftment of human lymphoid tissue in NOD/scid-IL-2Rgammacnull mice after CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution permits the evaluation of ongoing HIV-1 infection for weeks to months. We demonstrate that HIV-1-infected rodents develop virus-specific cellular immune responses. CD8+ cell depletion, 2 or 5-7 wk after viral infection, resulted in(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in humans and together cause disease and seasonal epidemics. These two types of influenza viruses are evolutionarily divergent, and exchange of genetic segments inside coinfected cells occurs frequently within types but never between influenza A and B viruses. Possible mechanisms inhibiting the intertypic(More)
Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal(More)
The generation of strong, virus-neutralizing antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. To try to enhance the Env-specific response, we displayed oligomeric gp140 on a virus-like scaffold provided by the lambda phage capsid. To do this, an in vitro complementation system was used to "decorate" phage(More)
The diverse host range, high transmissibility, and rapid evolution of influenza A viruses justify the importance of containing pathogenic viruses studied in the laboratory. Other than physically or mechanically changing influenza A virus containment procedures, modifying the virus to only replicate for a single round of infection similarly ensures safety(More)
The efficient induction of virus-specific mucosal antibodies is an important unmet objective in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine research. One promising approach is sublingual (SL) immunization. We examined the effectiveness of SL delivery of two different viral vectors: (i) a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5), and (ii) a Herpes Simplex Virus(More)
Mimetics of conformational protein epitopes have broad applications but have been difficult to identify using conventional peptide phage display. The 10th type III domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) has two extended, randomizable surface-exposed loops and might be more amenable to the identification of such mimetics. We therefore selected a library of(More)
An aberrant oxygen environment at birth increases the severity of respiratory viral infections later in life through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) 2 cells (AEC2s), progenitors for AEC1 cells, are depleted in adult mice exposed to neonatal hypoxia or hyperoxia. Airway cells expressing surfactant protein(More)
Bacteriophage lambda capsids provide a flexible molecular scaffold that can be engineered to display a wide range of exogenous proteins, including full-length viral glycoproteins produced in eukaryotic cells. One application for such particles lies in the detection of virus-specific antibodies, since they may obviate the need to work with infectious stocks(More)
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