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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight adults are at an increased risk of developing numerous chronic diseases. METHODS Ten-year follow-up (1986-1996) of middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study and men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to assess the health risks associated with overweight. RESULTS The risk of developing diabetes, gallstones,(More)
Obesity now affects one in five children in the United States. Discrimination against overweight children begins early in childhood and becomes progressively institutionalized. Because obese children tend to be taller than their nonoverweight peers, they are apt to be viewed as more mature. The inappropriate expectations that result may have an adverse(More)
OBJECTIVE Although many studies have found that childhood levels of body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) are associated with adult levels, it has been reported that childhood BMI is not associated with adult adiposity. We further examined these longitudinal associations. DESIGN Cohort study based on examinations between 1973 and 1996. SETTING Bogalusa,(More)
In this review, we address the natural history of obesity in children, the most promising family- and school-based approaches to the prevention of obesity, and the barriers and opportunities associated with secondary prevention. In childhood, the most important periods of risk appear to be the periods of adiposity rebound and adolescence. Caution regarding(More)
We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Overweight in adolescents may have deleterious effects on their subsequent self-esteem, social and economic characteristics, and physical health. We studied the relation between overweight and subsequent educational attainment, marital status, household income, and self-esteem in a nationally representative sample of 10,039 randomly(More)
Although the caloric deficits achieved by increased awareness, policy, and environmental approaches have begun to achieve reductions in the prevalence of obesity in some countries, these approaches are insufficient to achieve weight loss in patients with severe obesity. Because the prevalence of obesity poses an enormous clinical burden, innovative(More)