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In several species, including humans, circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels increase during the onset of puberty, suggesting that this peptide contributes to attaining sexual maturity. Because IGF-I elicits LHRH release from the median eminence (ME) of immature female rats in vitro, we hypothesized that it may represent one of the(More)
Manganese (Mn), an essential element considered important for normal growth and reproduction, has been shown in adults to be detrimental to reproductive function when elevated. Because Mn can cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the hypothalamus, and because it has been suggested that infants and children are potentially more sensitive to Mn than(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is emerging as a signal of peripheral origin capable of acting centrally to induce luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and accelerate the initiation of female puberty. Since we have shown previously that ethanol (ETOH) can suppress prepubertal LH release and delay female puberty, we hypothesized that these detrimental(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the enzyme which converts arginine into citrulline plus NO, a highly active free radical, has been found in many neurons in the brain, including neurons in the hypothalamus. Our previous experiments showed that norepinephrine-induced prostaglandin E2 release from hypothalamic explants incubated in vitro is mediated by NO. Since(More)
The ovary of humans and nonhuman primates is innervated by sympathetic and sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Recent studies demonstrated that the density of the sympathetic innervation to the rhesus monkey ovary is developmentally regulated, with adult density being attained around the time of puberty. In the present study, we used an(More)
The nature and role of the peptidergic innervation of the ovary were examined by determining the location and function of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-containing nerve fibers in the immature rat ovary. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of prepubertal ovaries using a specific VIP antibody revealed sparse delicate VIP-immunoreactive fibers localized(More)
Alcohol (ALC) use and abuse by adolescents has been rising at an alarming rate. Whether ALC consumption during prepubertal years affects specific hormones and the process of sexual maturation is not known. We used immature female rhesus macaques to assess the effects of ALC on circulating levels of hormones known to be critical for the pubertal process. Ten(More)
Fractionation of hypothalamic extracts on a Sephadex G-25 column separates follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing factor (FSHRF) from luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). The FSH-releasing peak contained immunoreactive lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone (lGnRH) by radioimmunoassay, and its activity was inactivated by an antiserum specific to(More)
To determine the effects of prepubertal ethanol (ETOH) exposure on hypothalamic and pituitary hormones known to be involved in the onset of female puberty, we have chronically exposed female rats to either a liquid-diet containing ETOH or an isocaloric control liquid-diet. An additional set of controls consisted of animals maintained on Lab Chow, and water(More)
To assess more closely the physiological mechanism(s) by which ethanol (ETOH) delays the onset of female puberty, we have evaluated its effects on body weight, the vaginal opening (VO)-first diestrus (D1) interval and the serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) throughout the peripubertal(More)