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  • W R Dawson
  • 1982
1. Birds lose water in evaporation from the respiratory tract and, in many species, through the skin. Anatomical arrangements in the nasal passages to conservation of water and hear from the expired air in the absence of heat loads. However, most species still expend more water in evaporation than they produce in metabolism when either quiescent or(More)
Passerines (members of the order Passeriformes such as finches, chickadees, jays, and warblers) are predominantly small birds characterized by relatively intense metabolic rates. Members of this group breeding at middle or high latitudes may either evade winter cold by migration or enhance their resistance to it by acclimatization. We review the energetic(More)
1. Standard ferruginea) averages 0.88 of eva~orative water loss for metabolic rate of western plumed pigeons (Lophophaps ml 0, (g hr)-I during summer. This rate and the rate by these birds at 2S°C are well below levels anticipated birds .of comparable size (81 g). 2. Summer and late fall birds did not have significantly different minimal thermal(More)
We observed a colony of marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on Isla Fernandina, Galápagos, Ecuador, while measuring local micrometeorological and tidal conditions. We found size-related differences in foraging mode, with smaller iguanas feeding intertidally during daytime low tides and larger iguanas feeding subtidally. Despite having greater(More)
BACKGROUND The current method of delivering gene replacement to the posterior segment of the eye involves a three-port pars plana vitrectomy followed by injection of the agent through a 37-gauge cannula, which is potentially wrought with retinal complications. In this paper we investigate the safety and efficacy of delivering adeno-associated viral (AAV)(More)
Studies of the spectral reflectance of the eggs of 25 species of birds from nine families disclosed uniformly high reflectance (often above 90 percent) in the near infrared. This property is associated with the presence of the eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and the bilins. These pigments allow coloration for cryptic or other purposes with minimum solar(More)
This investigation is a human application of previously reported work from our laboratories on experimental acoustic tumor effects on the stapedius reflex in monkeys. In this study, the contralateral stapedius reflex was elicited in human controls and in subjects with an acoustic tumor. Acoustic impedance was recorded on magnetic tape for offline analysis(More)
The present study attempts to assess whether the marked seasonal changes in the capacity for shivering thermogenesis in American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) involve adjustments of metabolic pathways of the pectoralis muscles similar to those observed in mammalian muscle in response to endurance training, i.e., changes favoring increased reliance on(More)