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Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion(More)
The insolubility of metal sulphides is believed to limit the bioavailability of trace metals in sulphidic sediments. However, if non-equilibrium conditions are important, metals may be more available than simple thermodynamic calculations suggest. To investigate the possible dynamic supply of Cu, Ni and Zn in a sulphidic freshwater sediment, they were(More)
A simple method for the analysis of polyacrylamide diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), employing a novel use of (115)In internal standardization, has been developed. This method allows the determination of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations (at the DGT filter face) or(More)
The technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) accumulates metals on a Chelex resin after their diffusive transport through a hydrogel. It lowers metal concentrations in soil solution adjacent to the device and induces resupply of metal associated with the solid phase. DGT devices were deployed in an alluvial gley soil for 21 different time(More)
The technique of DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films) was further developed to allow simultaneous measurement of sulfide and trace metals at the same location in sediment. The new combined DGT probe consisted of a layer of gel impregnated with AgI, overlain by (1) a layer of gel containing Chelex, (2) a layer of gel and (3) a filter membrane. Diffusion(More)
The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been developed for the measurement of dissolved sulfide. Sulfide species from the sampled waters diffuse through a polyacrylamide hydrogel and then react with pale yellow AgI((s)), incorporated at the surface of a second gel, to form black Ag(2)S((s)). The accumulated sulfide can be measured with(More)
Several techniques for speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni are used in freshwater systems and compared with respect to their performance and to the metal species detected. The analytical techniques comprise the following: (i) diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT); (ii) gel integrated microelectrodes combined to voltammetric in situ profiling(More)
Analysis of the dynamic features of diffusion gradients in thin film devices (DGT) indicates that the penetration of complexes into the resin layer dramatically increases their lability. This should be taken into account when interpreting DGT measurements in terms of the dynamics of solution speciation. The experimental accumulation of Cd by DGT sensors in(More)
The dynamic technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), that measures metal speciation in situ, has found wide environmental application. Simple interpretation of the metal accumulation in terms of a solution concentration has assumed that trace metals do not penetrate beyond the surface of the binding layer, but penetration, although(More)
The penetration of metal complexes into the resin layer of DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) devices greatly influences the measured metal accumulation, unless the complexes are either totally inert or perfectly labile. Lability criteria to predict the contribution of complexes in DGT measurements are reported. The key role of the resin thickness is(More)