• Publications
  • Influence
Measuring Citizen and Government Ideology in the American States
We construct dynamic measures of the ideology of a state's citizens and political leaders, using the roll call voting scores of state congressional delegations, the outcomes of congressionalExpand
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State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis
Two types of explanations of state government innovation have been proposed: internal determinants models (which posit that the factors causing a state government to innovate are political, economic,Expand
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Tax Innovation in the States: Capitalizing on Political Opportunity
This paper assesses the factors that prompt states to adopt taxes during the twentieth century. We test five explanations of state tax innovation derived from the literature-economic development,Expand
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Measuring Citizen and Government Ideology in the U.S. States: A Re-appraisal
Berry et al.'s (1998) measures of U.S. state citizen and government ideology rely on unadjusted interest-group ratings for a state's members of Congress to infer information about (1) the ideologicalExpand
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Nonrecursive Causal Models
Where an assumption of unidirectionality in causal effects is unrealistic, 'recursive' models cannot be used, and more complex 'nonrecursive' models are necessary. Unfortunately, many nonrecursiveExpand
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Improving Tests of Theories Positing Interaction
It is well established that all interactions are symmetric: when the effect of X on Y is conditional on the value of Z, the effect of Z must be conditional on the value of X. Yet the typical practiceExpand
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Testing for Interaction in Binary Logit and Probit Models: Is a Product Term Essential?
Political scientists presenting binary dependent variable (BDV) models often hypothesize that variables interact to influence the probability of an event, Pr(Y). The current typical approach toExpand
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An Annual Cost of Living Index for the American States, 1960-1995
An enormous amount of research on state politics and policy relies on monetary variables. Such variables are affected by differences in the purchasing power of a dollar over time and across states,Expand
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Using Geographic Information Systems to Study Interstate Competition
Scholars have proposed two distinct explanations for why policies diffuse across American states: (1) policymakers learn by observing the experiences of nearby states, and (2) states seek aExpand
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