William D. Stansfield

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In two-child families containing at least one boy, the expected probability that such a family has two boys is 1/3, provided that the boy/girl (B/G) ratio is 1.0 and the population to which they belong has a binomial distribution of BB, (BG + GB), and GG families. It is commonly known that in most human populations the sex ratio at birth (i.e., the ratio of(More)
he early 14th century philosopher William of Occam (Sahakian 1968, p. 116) is credited by historians for proposing that, in interpreting scientific data, the simplest explanation consistent with all the known facts is preferred as a working hypothesis over more complicated ones. In other words, scientific explanations should be pared down (as if using a(More)
Students should not graduate from high school without understanding that scientific debates are essential components of scientific methodology. This article presents a brief history of ongoing debates regarding the hypothesis that group selection is an evolutionary mechanism, and it serves as an example of the role that debates play in correcting faulty(More)
We previously analyzed data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, 1998 to 2002) on families with two biological children (10 years of age and younger) and found that the distribution of families with two boys, two girls, and one boy + one girl did not statistically conform to a binomial distribution regardless of the boy/girl sex ratio used.(More)
ALLELES at eight autosomal loci are known to affect blood groups in sheep, as recently reviewed by RASMUSEN ( 1962). As in studies of blood groups in cattle, chickens, rabbits and other domestic species, the question has arisen whether balance mechanisms may be involved in maintaining heterozygosity at any or all of these blood-group loci. To that end we(More)
French naturalist J.B. Lamarck is most commonly known for popularizing the theory that some traits acquired during the life of an organism can be inherited in his 1809 book. German biologist A. Weismann presented evidence in his 1891 book that acquired traits were not heritable in sexually reproducing animals. But so little was known about bacteria that(More)
Viable mice homozygous for two recessive autosomal genes, hairless (hr) and obese (ob) were produced with an average life span of 538 +/- 34.1 days. On the average, hairless-obese mice weighed about 73 percent as much as obese mice. Since obese mice consumed approximately 73 percent as much oxygen per gram body weight per hour as hairless-obese mice at(More)