William D Shrader

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Inherited mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are progressive, life-threatening conditions for which there are limited supportive treatment options and no approved drugs. Because of this unmet medical need, as well as the implication of mitochondrial dysfunction as a contributor to more common age-related and neurodegenerative disorders, mitochondrial(More)
Based on first principles and molecular mechanics calculations, we conclude that the mechanism of hevamine (a family 18 chitinase) involves an oxazoline ion intermediate stabilized by the neighboring C2' acetamido group. In this intermediate, the acetamido carbonyl oxygen atom forms a covalent bond to C1' of N-acetyl-glucosamine and has a transferred(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic agent, EPI-743, in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) using standard clinical, anatomic, and functional visual outcome measures. DESIGN Open-label clinical trial. SETTING University medical center. Patients  Five patients with genetically confirmed LHON with acute loss of vision(More)
BACKGROUND Genetically defined Leigh syndrome is a rare, fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects children. No treatment is available. EPI-743 is a novel small molecule developed for the treatment of Leigh syndrome and other inherited mitochondrial diseases. In compassionate use cases and in an FDA Expanded Access protocol,(More)
An extensive structural manifold of short hydrogen bond-mediated, active site-directed, serine protease inhibition motifs is revealed in a set of over 300 crystal structures involving a large suite of small molecule inhibitors (2-(2-phenol)-indoles and 2-(2-phenol)-benzimidazoles) determined over a wide range of pH (3.5-11.4). The active site(More)
We report that α-tocotrienol quinone (ATQ3) is a metabolite of α-tocotrienol, and that ATQ3 is a potent cellular protectant against oxidative stress and aging. ATQ3 is orally bioavailable, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and has demonstrated clinical response in inherited mitochondrial disease in open label studies. ATQ3 activity is dependent upon(More)
Hepsin is an integral membrane protein that may participate in cell growth and in maintaining proper cell morphology and is overexpressed in a number of primary tumors. We have determined the 1.75 A resolution structure of the extracellular component of human hepsin. This structure includes a 255-residue trypsin-like serine protease domain and a 109-residue(More)
Novel scaffolds that bind to serine proteases through a unique network of short hydrogen bonds to the catalytic Ser195 have been developed. The resulting potent serine protease inhibitors were designed from lead molecule 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)1H-benzoimidazole-5-carboxamidine, 6b, which is known to display several modes of binding. For instance, 6b can recruit(More)
Within the trypsin family of coagulation proteases, obtaining highly selective inhibitors of factor VIIa has been challenging. We report a series of factor VIIa (fVIIa) inhibitors based on the 5-amidino-2-(2-hydroxy-biphenyl-3-yl)-benzimidazole (1) scaffold with potency for fVIIa and high selectivity against factors IIa, Xa, and trypsin. With this scaffold(More)
A neutral inhibitor of the serine protease factor Xa was identified via a high-throughput screen of a commercial library. The initial lead 1 demonstrated reversible and competitive inhibition kinetics for factor Xa and possessed a high degree of selectivity versus other related serine proteases. Initial modeling efforts and the generation of a series of(More)