William D. Russell

Learn More
or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than IFETS must be honoured. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to(More)
Within a multivariate design, the relationship between sex, sport, and competitive situation with state anxiety was examined. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to selected intramural basketball and volleyball teams (ns = 266 and 226) prior to round-robin and play-off competition. Multivariate analysis of variance yielded a(More)
This study assessed the effects of associative and dissociative psychological strategies of attention on heart rate and self-report ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during cycling performance. Seven trained cyclists performed a control ride, a dissociation ride, and an association ride on a bicycle ergometer at a work rate corresponding to 75% of their(More)
This paper chronicles the psychophysical principles which led to the development of the Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale by Borg in 1970 and a concise, comprehensive summary of research on the scale. The current status of research is examined by discussion of several important areas within the field including psychophysical scaling, scale(More)
The Anxiety Rating Scale-2 and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 were administered to 100 male university intramural volleyball players 15 min. before a match began. For 50 participants, the above order of presentation was used; for the other 50 the order was reversed. Correlations for cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence between(More)
  • 1