William D. Russell

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Individuals using a university library were observed using stairs or elevators to travel up one to three floors. After a baseline assessment, a sign was posted by the elevator to discourage elevator use over a five-week period. A hierarchical log linear analysis indicated that stair use increased significantly after the intervention moderated by day of the(More)
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This paper chronicles the psychophysical principles which led to the development of the Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale by Borg in 1970 and a concise, comprehensive summary of research on the scale. The current status of research is examined by discussion of several important areas within the field including psychophysical scaling, scale(More)
This study compared the effectiveness of two point-of-decision prompts within the same environmental setting. The effects of a health promotion sign were compared with activity change resulting from a deterrent sign. Individuals were observed using the upward stairs or upward escalator at a midwest regional air port during a 5-week period in which(More)
Within a multivariate design, the relationship between sex, sport, and competitive situation with state anxiety was examined. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to selected intramural basketball and volleyball teams (ns = 266 and 226) prior to round-robin and play-off competition. Multivariate analysis of variance yielded a(More)
This study assessed the effects of associative and dissociative psychological strategies of attention on heart rate and self-report ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during cycling performance. Seven trained cyclists performed a control ride, a dissociation ride, and an association ride on a bicycle ergometer at a work rate corresponding to 75% of their(More)
Exergames may be useful for promoting physical activity in younger populations. Heart rate (HRs) responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at self-selected intensities were compared in college-age participants during 2 modes of exergame activity vs. traditional exercise. Thirty-seven participants (men: 20, women: 17) completed 3 30-minute(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of interactive video games (IVGs) to individualize physical demands influences their viability as a physical activity option. This study examined the influence of experience level on activity levels and affect resulting from playing a martial arts IVG. METHODS Twenty participants completed 3 15-minute trials: (1) walking, (2) IVG(More)
The Anxiety Rating Scale-2 and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 were administered to 100 male university intramural volleyball players 15 min. before a match began. For 50 participants, the above order of presentation was used; for the other 50 the order was reversed. Correlations for cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence between(More)
The microbial content of unfrozen and frozen ground turkey meat (GTM) in retail markets and the thermal resistance of Salmonella organienburg in GTM was determined. The unfrozen product had an average total aerobic count of 53 X 10(4) cells per g. These counts reduced slightly when held in a display case for one and two days at 1-2 degrees C. The frozen GTM(More)