William D. Rees

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Beyond the short-term effects on fertility, there is increasing evidence that obesity or the consumption of an inappropriate diet by the mother during pregnancy adversely affects the long-term health of her offspring. PPAR and RXR isotypes are widely expressed in reproductive tissues and in the developing fetus. Through their interactions with fatty acids,(More)
Maternal protein deficiency causes fetal growth retardation which has been associated with the programming of adult disease. The growth of the rat fetus was examined when the mothers were fed on diets containing 180, 90 and 60 g protein/kg. The numbers of fetuses were similar in animals fed on the 180 and 90 g protein/kg diets but the number was(More)
Maternal malnutrition can lead to fetal abnormalities and increase susceptibility to disease in later life. Rat models have been developed to study the physiology and metabolism underlying this phenomenon. One particular model of 50 % protein restriction during pregnancy, the low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with methionine, has been developed to(More)
The methionine cycle and methyl group metabolism are implicated in the long-term programming of metabolism. Diets deficient in folic acid, methionine and choline have been fed to pregnant rats to examine the effects on amino acid metabolism, choline reserves and DNA methylation in dam and fetuses. Animals were fed folate-deficient, folate-deficient with low(More)
In humans poor maternal folate status is associated with a decrease in infant birth weight. As low birth weight increases the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adults, an inadequate supply of folic acid in the mother's diet may increase the susceptibility of the offspring to disease. We have fed laboratory rats diets deficient in folic acid(More)
The available evidence suggests that metabolic control mechanisms are programmed early in life. Previous studies of pregnant rats fed low-protein diets have suggested that the vegetable oils used in the experimental diets influence the outcome. The present study investigated the offspring of female rats fed semi-synthetic diets containing either 180 or 90g(More)
A methyl-deficient diet (MD) lacking folic acid and the associated methyl donors choline and methionine, fed to the laboratory rat during the periods of oocyte and embryo development, has been shown to programme glucose metabolism in the offspring. The hepatic proteome of the male offspring of female rats fed MD diets for 3 weeks prior to mating and for the(More)
High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were(More)
Iron is essential for the oxidative metabolism of lipids. Lipid metabolism changes during gestation to meet the requirements of the growing fetus and to prepare for lactation. The temporal effects of iron deficiency during gestation were studied in female rats fed complete or iron-deficient diets. Plasma triglycerides were elevated in the iron-deficient(More)
The mechanisms by which maternal protein deficiency programs insulin action in the offspring are poorly understood. The interpretation of transcriptomics is complicated by homeostatic adaptations, for example, changes in amino acid metabolism, which are potentially unrelated to the programming mechanism. The fatty acid composition of the maternal diet(More)
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