William D. O'Brien

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The reverberation time (RT) is an important parameter for characterizing the quality of an auditory space. Sounds in reverberant environments are subject to coloration. This affects speech intelligibility and sound localization. Many state-of-the-art audio signal processing algorithms, for example in hearing-aids and telephony, are expected to have the(More)
Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic(More)
A modified assay for the determination of hydroxyproline in tissue is presented. The modifications greatly reduce the time required for analysis of excised tissue as first introduced by Stegemann and Stalder [1]. These modifications include a change in the technique for tissue hydrolysis and a change in the preparation of the hydroxyproline oxidizing agent.(More)
This paper describes an approach to boundary detection in ultrasound speckle based on an image enhancement technique. The enhancement algorithm works by filtering the image with "sticks," short line segments which are varied in orientation to achieve the maximum projected value at each point. The statistical properties of this approach have been described(More)
Threshold estimates and superthreshold behaviors for ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage were investigated as a function of species (adult mice and rats) and ultrasound frequency (2.8 and 5.6 MHz). A total of 151 6-to-7-week-old female ICR mice and 160 10-to-11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two ultrasonic frequency groups,(More)
Extraction of a target sound source amidst multiple interfering sound sources is difficult when there are fewer sensors than sources, as is the case for human listeners in the classic cocktail-party situation. This study compares the signal extraction performance of five algorithms using recordings of speech sources made with three different two-microphone(More)
Attenuation coefficients of intercostal tissues were estimated from chest walls removed postmortem (pm) from 41 6-to-7-week-old female ICR mice and 27 10-to-11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. These values were determined from measurements through the intercostal tissues, from the surface of the skin to the parietal pleura. Mouse chest walls were sealed(More)
Determining the rupture pressure threshold of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles has significant applications for contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of potential bioeffects. Using a passive cavitation detector, this work evaluates rupture based on acoustic emissions from single, encapsulated, gas-filled microbubbles.(More)
Scatterer properties like the average effective scatterer diameter and acoustic concentration were determined in vivo using a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique from two tumor phenotypes grown in animal models. These tumor models included spontaneously occurring mammary fibroadenomas in rats and transplanted 4T1 mammary carcinomas in mice. The(More)
This paper considers the problem of detecting lines in speckle imagery, such as that produced by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or ultrasound techniques. Using the physical principles that account for the speckle phenomenon, we derive the optimal detector for lines in fully developed speckle, and we compare the optimal detector to several suboptimal(More)