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Inbred mouse strains are classically used to search for the genes associated with behavioral traits, including emotionality. To distinguish genetic and environmental contributions to the expression of adult behavior in mice, we investigated the effects of prenatal (embryo transfer) and postnatal (cross-fostering) environments in two strains of inbred mice(More)
HLA class II-restricted regulatory T cell (Treg) epitopes in IgG (also called "Tregitopes") have been reported to suppress immune responses to coadministered antigens by stimulating the expansion of natural Tregs (nTregs). Here we evaluate their impact on human immune responses to islet cell antigens ex vivo and on the modulation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in(More)
A new avian-origin influenza virus emerged near Shanghai in February 2013, and by the beginning of May it had caused over 130 human infections and 36 deaths. Human-to-human transmission of avian-origin H7N9 influenza A has been limited to a few family clusters, but the high mortality rate (27%) associated with human infection has raised concern about the(More)
Immune recognition of foreign proteins by T cells hinges on the formation of a ternary complex sandwiching a constituent peptide of the protein between a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule and a T cell receptor (TCR). Viruses have evolved means of "camouflaging" themselves, avoiding immune recognition by reducing the MHC and/or TCR binding of(More)
The promise of pharmacogenomics depends on advancing predictive medicine. To address this need in the area of immunology, we developed the individualized T cell epitope measure (iTEM) tool to estimate an individual's T cell response to a protein antigen based on HLA binding predictions. In this study, we validated prospective iTEM predictions using data(More)
BACKGROUND Biodefense vaccines against Category B bioterror agents Burkholderia pseudomallei (BPM) and Burkholderia mallei (BM) are needed, as they are both easily accessible to terrorists and have strong weaponization potential. Burkholderia cepaciae (BC), a related pathogen, causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Since BPM, BM and BC(More)
A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza strain emerged in China in April 2013. Since its re-emergence in October–November 2013, the number of reported cases has accelerated; more than 220 laboratory-confirmed cases and 112 deaths (case fatality rate of 20–30%) have been reported. The resurgence of H7N9 has re-emphasized the importance of making faster and more(More)
High strain sequence variability, interference with innate immune mechanisms, and epitope deletion are all examples of strategies that pathogens have evolved to subvert host defenses. To this list we would add another strategy: immune camouflage. Pathogens whose epitope sequences are cross-conserved with multiple human proteins at the TCR-facing residues(More)