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BACKGROUND Vitamin D is crucial for maintenance of musculoskeletal health, and might also have a role in extraskeletal tissues. Determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations include sun exposure and diet, but high heritability suggests that genetic factors could also play a part. We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 972 pregnant women who had been given at least 1 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor prescription in the year before delivery and 3878 pregnant women who did not(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. DATA SOURCES We searched electronic databases of the human literature in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to February 2010 using the following key words: "preterm/pre-term + (birth/delivery)" and "cytokine" or(More)
CONTEXT High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone(More)
We studied the association between plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), its determinants folate, vitamin B(12), vitamin B(6) and MTHFR genotype, and bone mineral density (BMD) in 328 postmenopausal British women. When the subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups (control, osteopenic or osteoporotic) according to their BMD at the os calcis, those in the(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoparathyroidism results in impaired mineral homoeostasis, including hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Treatment with high-dose oral calcium and active vitamin D does not provide adequate or consistent control of biochemical indices and can lead to serious long-term complications. We aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of(More)
Bone mineral density is a complex trait regulated by an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have identified a functional polymorphism affecting codon 677 of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene that is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese and Danish postmenopausal women and(More)
BACKGROUND With the identification of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for developing osteoporosis, the contribution of thiols metabolically linked with homocysteine (tHcy) may be of importance. Cysteine (Cys) is formed from tHcy and is involved in bone metabolism via incorporation into collagen and cysteine protease enzymes. METHODS We investigated(More)
For 5 months a year the UK has insufficient sunlight for cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D and winter requirements are met from stores made the previous summer. Although there are few natural dietary sources, dietary intake may help maintain vitamin D status. We investigated the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), bone health, overweight,(More)