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This study explores and tests a new model that links different types of technology usage to individual-level outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the effects of efficient use (routinization) and effective use (infusion) along with the traditional measure of usage—namely, frequency of use—on two dimensions of individual-level outcomes:(More)
We registered 366 families in a study of dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two hundred ninety families were screened for mutations in the gene encoding copper-zinc cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Mutations were detected in 68 families. The most common SOD1 mutation is an alanine for valine substitution in codon 4 (50%). We present(More)
Oestrogen produces diverse biological effects through binding to the oestrogen receptor (ER). The ER is a steroid hormone nuclear receptor, which, when bound to oestrogen, modulates the transcriptional activity of target genes. Controversy exists, however, concerning whether ER has a role outside the nucleus, particularly in mediating the cardiovascular(More)
In 1948, Wolff and Chaikoff reported that organic binding of iodide in the thyroid was decreased when plasma iodide levels were elevated (acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect), and that adaptation or escape from the acute effect occurred in approximately 2 days, in the presence of continued high plasma iodide concentrations. We later demonstrated that the escape is(More)
Estrogen receptors (ER) and thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factors. Estrogen-induced preproenkephalin (PPE) gene expression in the hypothalamus is directly related to estrogen-induced lordosis behavior in the rat. In the present study, we showed that the PPE mRNA level in the ventromedial hypothalamus of female(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a crucial role in brain development. Developing rodent cerebellum might be an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms of TH action in the brain because perinatal hypothyroidism greatly affects its ontogeny. Although the TH-regulated genes that play crucial roles in cerebellar development have not yet been fully(More)
Three cellular homologs of the v-erbA oncogene were previously identified in the rat; two of them encode high affinity receptors for the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3). A rat complementary DNA clone encoding a T3 receptor form of the ErbA protein, called r-ErbA beta-2, was isolated. The r-ErbA beta-2 protein differs at its amino terminus from the(More)
In the vertebrate brain, the thalamus serves as a relay and integration station for diverse neuronal information en route from the periphery to the cortex. Deficiency of TH during development results in severe cerebral abnormalities similar to those seen in the mouse when the retinoic acid receptor (ROR)alpha gene is disrupted. To investigate the effect of(More)
The hypothalamic hormone, GnRH, is released and transported to the anterior pituitary in a pulsatile manner, where it binds to specific high-affinity receptors and regulates gonadotropin biosynthesis and secretion. The frequency of GnRH pulses changes under various physiological conditions, and varying GnRH pulse frequencies have been shown to regulate(More)
Both the estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of the ER, alpha and beta, exist. The TRalpha and beta isoforms are products of two distinct genes that are further differentially spliced to give TRalpha1 and alpha2, TRbeta1 and beta2. The TRs have been shown to interfere with(More)