William Checkley

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Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered to be the pathogen responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We genotyped Cryptosporidium in 132 stool specimens from 80 Peruvian children, representing 85 infection episodes, using techniques that differentiate Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum genotypes. Five types of Cryptosporidium were identified: C.(More)
Cryptosporidium spp are well recognised as causes of diarrhoeal disease during waterborne epidemics and in immunocompromised hosts. Studies have also drawn attention to an underestimated global burden and suggest major gaps in optimum diagnosis, treatment, and immunisation. Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly identified as an important cause of morbidity and(More)
INTRODUCTION To investigate whether the El Niño phenomenon and ambient temperature had an effect on the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea, we analysed data on daily number of admissions of children with diarrhoea to the Oral Rehydration Unit of the Instituto de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru, between January, 1993, and November, 1998. METHODS We obtained(More)
OBJECTIVES The criteria that define acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome include PaO₂/Fio₂ but not positive end-expiratory pressure or Fio2. PaO2/Fio2 ratios of some patients increase substantially after mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure of 5-10 cm H₂O, and the mortality of these patients may be lower than(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a common gastrointestinal protozoan worldwide, but its effects on childhood growth in developing countries are not clearly understood. The authors aimed to describe its effects on child growth. They followed 220 Peruvian children daily for diarrhea, weekly for stool samples, and monthly for anthropometry. The authors modeled the(More)
We compared the epidemiologic characteristics of cyclosporiasis and cryptosporidiosis in data from a cohort study of diarrhea in a periurban community near Lima, Peru. Children had an average of 0.20 episodes of cyclosporiasis/year and 0.22 episodes of cryptosporidiosis/year of follow-up. The incidence of cryptosporidiosis peaked at 0.42 for 1-year-old(More)
Mortality in National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored clinical trials of treatments for acute lung injury (ALI) has decreased dramatically during the past two decades. As a consequence, design of such trials based on a mortality outcome requires ever-increasing numbers of patients. Recognizing that advances in clinical trial design might be(More)
This study investigated whether a child's first infection with Cryptosporidium parvum had an acute effect on weight gain. Specifically, the authors compared monthly rates of weight gain between C. parvum-infected and noninfected children. Over a 2-year period (1989-1991), a cohort of Peruvian children aged 0-3 months at recruitment were followed twice(More)
Diarrhoea is an important cause of death and illness among children in developing countries; however, it remains controversial as to whether diarrhoea leads to stunting. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies that collected daily diarrhoea morbidity and longitudinal anthropometry to determine the effects of the longitudinal history of diarrhoea(More)