William Chao

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In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures genome stability by delaying chromosome segregation until all sister chromatids have achieved bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle. The SAC is imposed by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), whose assembly is catalysed by unattached chromosomes and which binds and inhibits the(More)
In metazoans, the Ras-Raf-MEK (mitogen-activated protein-kinase kinase)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signalling pathway relays extracellular stimuli to elicit changes in cellular function and gene expression. Aberrant activation of this pathway through oncogenic mutations is responsible for a large proportion of human cancer. Kinase(More)
We implemented a working IP multicast forwarding prototype for use in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) based upon flooding mechanisms. We present the design of a working experimental prototype and some initial performance results using the NRL mobile network emulation system and various optional flooding approaches within the design framework. In addition,(More)
The remarkable accuracy of eukaryotic cell division is partly maintained by the cohesin complex acting as a molecular glue to prevent premature sister chromatid separation. The loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is catalyzed by the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex. Here, we report the crystal structure of Scc4 bound to the N terminus of Scc2 and show that Scc4 is(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection, gastric cancer and other gastric diseases through the changes in gastric mucosa and the status of different gastric diseases within 5 years after H. pylori eradication in H. pylori-positive subjects in a high incidence region of gastric cancer. METHODS One thousand and six adults were(More)
The functions of cohesin are central to genome integrity, chromosome organization and transcription regulation through its prevention of premature sister-chromatid separation and the formation of DNA loops. The loading of cohesin onto chromatin depends on the Scc2-Scc4 complex; however, little is known about how it stimulates the cohesion-loading activity.(More)
Mechanistic and structural studies of large multi-subunit assemblies are greatly facilitated by their reconstitution in heterologous recombinant systems. In the present paper, we describe the generation of recombinant human APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell-cycle progression. Human APC/C is composed of(More)
Centrosome amplification has been extensively associated with cancer. Cancer cells with extra centrosomes have the ability to cluster the extra centrosomes and divide in a bipolar fashion. Although a number of proteins have been shown to be involved in centrosome clustering, a mechanistic understanding of how this process is coordinated is not yet well(More)
Two important enabling but evolving technologies supporting future DoD network-centric systems at the tactical edge are, mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) and Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). Despite their value in enabling more autonomous network system operation scenarios, open research and engineering questions remain regarding robust interoperation,(More)
Intercellular heterogeneity, exacerbated by chromosomal instability (CIN), fosters tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. However, extreme CIN correlates with improved cancer outcome, suggesting that karyotypic diversity required to adapt to selection pressures might be balanced in tumors against the risk of excessive instability. Here, we used a(More)