William C. Sullivan

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Research suggests that the formation of neighborhood social ties (NSTs) may substantially depend on the informal social contact which occurs in neighborhood common spaces, and that in inner-city neighborhoods where common spaces are often barren no-man's lands, the presence of trees and grass supports common space use and informal social contact among(More)
There is an international volunteer movement to protect and restore sensitive natural landscapes. In Illinois alone, almost 40,000 acres of rare prairie, oak savanna, wetlands and woodland ecosystems in urban and suburban communities are monitored and managed by volunteers. As natural habitats disappear or become degraded worldwide, it is increasingly(More)
Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a temperate tree grown for nuts and wood, but it is allelopathic to certain plants and animals. We compiled reports of valuable black walnut companion crops which may be grown in the short term (<15 years after planting walnut trees), medium term (15–30 years), and long term (>30 years). There are many black walnut(More)
Previous research has demonstrated positive associations between the greenness of high school landscapes and school wide academic performance. We do not known, however, if green landscapes cause better performance or if the association between the two is a product of self-selection. If there is a causal relationship, the pathways through which green school(More)
Urban streetscapes are outdoor areas in which the general public can appreciate green landscapes and engage in outdoor activities along the street. This study tested the extent to which the degree of awareness of urban street trees impacts attention restoration and perceived restorativeness. We manipulated the degree of awareness of street trees.(More)
Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by(More)
Although vegetation has been positively linked to fear of crime and crime in a number of settings, recent findings in urban residential areas have hinted at a possible negative relationship: Residents living in “greener” surroundings report lower levels of fear, fewer incivilities, and less aggressive and violent behavior. This study used police crime(More)
out fermentation are present worldwide. Fermentation organisms are ambient in the environment, whether humans make use of them or not. The relationships embodied in preserved foods can be treated as microbial ecosystems, sitting on countertops and stored in food cellars around the world. The main components of the fermentation ecosystem include: microbes(More)