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The product of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) open reading frame 74 (ORF74) is related structurally and functionally to cellular chemokine receptors. ORF74 activates several cellular signaling pathways in the absence of added ligands, and NIH 3T3 cells expressing ORF74 are tumorigenic in nude mice. We have generated a line of transgenic (Tg) mice with ORF74(More)
HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4+ and CD8+(More)
Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the alpha/beta T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation,(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that both human stem cells and mature stromal cells can play an important role in the development and growth of human malignancies. In contrast to these tumor-promoting properties, we observed that in an in vivo model of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), intravenously (i.v.) injected human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to sites of(More)
BACKGROUND A characteristic finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the presence of heavy proteinuria, focal or global glomerulosclerosis, and microcystic tubular dilatation leading to renal enlargement, and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS We have recently developed the first HIV-1(More)
Maintenance of Th1 responses and dendritic cell (DC) functions are compromised in HIV-1 infected individuals. To better understand these immune abnormalities, we developed an HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat. We report that Tg DCs induce elevated levels of SOCS-1 and secrete decreased IL-12p40 and elevated levels of IL-10 following TLR-4 stimulation by LPS. This(More)
BACKGROUND There are currently no widely accepted neuro-HIV small animal models. We wanted to validate the HIV-1 Transgenic rat (Tg) as an appropriate neuro-HIV model and then establish in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuropathology, within this model, using MR structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS Young and middle-aged Tg and control rats(More)
Over the past 10 years, a great deal has been learned about the fundamental biology and therapeutic application of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intravenous administration of these cells is the preferred route for therapeutic delivery of MSCs. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are the first cell type that MSCs encounter following(More)
1. The atypical citrate-utilizing ability to two strains of E. coli has been shown to be plasmid-encoded. Strain V414 carries a 130 Mdal conjugative Cit+ plasmid that also specifies Tcr and Cmr. Strain V517 carries 9 different plasmid species but only the 36 Mdal species is correlated with Cit+ ability. These plasmids are different from previously reported(More)
The dopaminergic system is especially vulnerable to the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, rendering dopaminergic deficits early surrogate markers of HIV-associated neuropathology. We quantified dopamine D2/3 receptors in young HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) (n  =  6) and age-matched control rats (n  =  7) and adult Tg (n  =  5) and age-matched(More)