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UNLABELLED 11C-PBR28 PET can detect the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expressed within macrophages. However, quantitative evaluation of the signal in brain tissue from donors with multiple sclerosis (MS) shows that PBR28 binds the TSPO with high affinity (binding affinity [Ki], ∼4 nM), low affinity (Ki, ∼200 nM), or mixed affinity (2 sites with Ki, ∼4(More)
Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but its role in cognitive impairment and its course of development during the disease are largely unknown. To address these unknowns, we used positron emission tomography with (11)C-PBR28 to measure translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a putative biomarker for inflammation. Patients with(More)
Second-generation radioligands for translocator protein (TSPO), an inflammation marker, are confounded by the codominant rs6971 polymorphism that affects binding affinity. The resulting three groups are homozygous for high-affinity state (HH), homozygous for low-affinity state (LL), or heterozygous (HL). We tested if in vitro binding to leukocytes(More)
This longitudinal study sought to determine whether the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of neuroinflammation, increases over time in Alzheimer's disease. Positron emission tomography imaging with the TSPO radioligand (11)C-PBR28 was performed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 2.7 years in 14 amyloid-positive patients and 8(More)
UNLABELLED Permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter in several organs, acts at the blood-brain barrier to protect the brain from exogenous toxins. P-gp almost completely blocks brain entry of the PET radiotracer (11)C-N-desmethyl-loperamide ((11)C-dLop). We examined the ability of (11)C-dLop to quantify P-gp function in humans after(More)
UNLABELLED Ten percent of humans lack specific binding of [(11)C]PBR28 to 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker for inflammation. "Non-binders" have not been reported using another TSPO radioligand, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195, despite its use for more than two decades. This study asked two questions: (1) What is the cause of non-binding to PBR28? and(More)
UNLABELLED Animal studies and clinical observations suggest that epilepsy is associated with inflammation. Translocator protein (TSPO) (18 kDa), a marker of inflammation, is increased in vitro in surgical samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. TSPO can be measured in the living human brain with PET and the novel radioligand (11)C-PBR28. In this(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW In 2011, a new set of new guidelines for the research diagnosis of three stages of Alzheimer disease was promulgated by the US National Institute of Aging and the Alzheimer Association. For the first time, they include the diagnosis of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease, recognizing that the disease process begins years before cognitive(More)
UNLABELLED 11C-Loperamide is an avid substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but it is rapidly metabolized to 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (11C-dLop), which is also a substrate for P-gp and thereby contaminates the radioactive signal in the brain. Should further demethylation of 11C-dLop occur, radiometabolites with low entry into the brain are generated.(More)
UNLABELLED The permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter is densely expressed at the blood-brain barrier, and its resultant spare capacity requires substantial blockade to increase the uptake of avid substrates, blunting the ability of investigators to measure clinically meaningful alterations in P-gp function. This study, conducted in humans,(More)