William C. Kreisl

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Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but its role in cognitive impairment and its course of development during the disease are largely unknown. To address these unknowns, we used positron emission tomography with (11)C-PBR28 to measure translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a putative biomarker for inflammation. Patients with(More)
UNLABELLED Permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter in several organs, acts at the blood-brain barrier to protect the brain from exogenous toxins. P-gp almost completely blocks brain entry of the PET radiotracer (11)C-N-desmethyl-loperamide ((11)C-dLop). We examined the ability of (11)C-dLop to quantify P-gp function in humans after(More)
UNLABELLED Animal studies and clinical observations suggest that epilepsy is associated with inflammation. Translocator protein (TSPO) (18 kDa), a marker of inflammation, is increased in vitro in surgical samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. TSPO can be measured in the living human brain with PET and the novel radioligand (11)C-PBR28. In this(More)
UNLABELLED We developed a radioligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2-(18)F-(fluoromethyl)thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ((18)F-SP203), for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 (mGluR5) receptors that showed both promising (high specific binding) and problematic (defluorination) imaging characteristics in animals. The purposes of this initial evaluation in human subjects(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW In 2011, a new set of new guidelines for the research diagnosis of three stages of Alzheimer disease was promulgated by the US National Institute of Aging and the Alzheimer Association. For the first time, they include the diagnosis of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease, recognizing that the disease process begins years before cognitive(More)
IMPORTANCE Neuroinflammation may play a role in epilepsy. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a biomarker of neuroinflammation, is overexpressed on activated microglia and reactive astrocytes. A preliminary positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging study using carbon 11 ([11C])-labeled PBR28 in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) found increased(More)
This longitudinal study sought to determine whether the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of neuroinflammation, increases over time in Alzheimer's disease. Positron emission tomography imaging with the TSPO radioligand (11)C-PBR28 was performed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 2.7 years in 14 amyloid-positive patients and 8(More)
Efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier can decrease the entry of drugs and increase the removal of those molecules able to bypass the transporter. We previously hypothesized that (18)F-FCWAY, a radioligand for the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, is a weak substrate for permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) based on its very early peak and rapid washout from(More)
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