William C. Kieper

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The naïve and memory T lymphocyte pools are maintained through poorly understood homeostatic mechanisms that may include signaling via cytokine receptors. We show that interleukin-7 (IL-7) plays multiple roles in regulating homeostasis of CD8+ T cells. We found that IL-7 was required for homeostatic expansion of naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in lymphopenic(More)
Although TLR7 and TLR8 are phylogenetically and structurally related, their relative functions are largely unknown. The role of TLR7 has been established using TLR7-deficient mice and small molecule TLR7 agonists. The absence of TLR8-selective agonists has hampered our understanding of the role of TLR8. In this study TLR agonists selective for TLR7 or TLR8(More)
The overall size and composition of the pool of naive and memory T cells are tightly regulated by homeostatic mechanisms. Recent work has shown that homeostasis of naive T cells is controlled by two factors, self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide ligands and a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-7. In particular, contact with these two factors is(More)
Homeostatic proliferation of naive T cells transferred to T cell-deficient syngeneic mice is driven by low-affinity self-MHC/peptide ligands and the cytokine IL-7. In addition to homeostatic proliferation, a subset of naive T cells undergoes massive proliferation in chronically immunodeficient hosts, but not in irradiated normal hosts. Such rapid T cell(More)
Recent data suggest that survival of resting, naïve T cells requires an interaction with self MHC molecules. From analysis of the class I MHC-restricted T cell receptor transgenic strain OT-I, we report a different response. Rather than merely surviving, these T cells proliferated slowly after transfer into T-depleted syngeneic hosts. This expansion(More)
Although it is clear that positive selection of T cells involves recognition of specific self-peptide/MHC complexes, the nature of these self-ligands and their relationship to the cognate antigen are controversial. Here we used two complementary strategies to identify naturally occurring self-peptides able to induce positive selection of T cells bearing a(More)
Transgenic (TG) mice expressing a high copy number of interleukin (IL)-7 cDNA under the control of the major histocomaptability complex (MHC) class II promoter display a 10-20-fold increase in total T cell numbers. Here, we show that the increase in T cell numbers in IL-7 TG mice is most apparent at the level of memory phenotype CD44hi CD122hi CD8+ cells.(More)
NK cells limit the emergence of cancers and viral infections by surveillance of 'missing-self' and 'induced-self' ligands, and by direct recognition of pathogen-associated molecules. We examined individual roles for Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-7 and -8 in human NK-cell activation using synthetic, small molecule agonists of either TLR-7 (imiquimod and(More)
CD1d-reactive natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant V alpha 14 rearrangement (V alpha 14i) are a distinct subset of T lymphocytes that likely have important immune-regulatory functions. Little is known regarding the factors responsible for their peripheral survival. Using alpha-galactosylceramide-containing CD1d tetramers to detect V alpha 14i NKT(More)
The size of the T lymphocyte pool is maintained by regulation of T cell production, proliferation, and survival. Under the pressure of a T lymphopenic environment, mature naive T cells begin to proliferate in the absence of Ag, a process called homeostatic expansion. Homeostatic expansion involves TCR recognition of self peptide/MHC ligands, but less is(More)