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BACKGROUND Excessive alcohol drinking continues to be an important health problem. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that animal models of ethanol dependence and relapse can contribute to understanding factors that contribute to excessive drinking. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the amount and duration of ethanol(More)
This study examined the relationship between voluntary ethanol consumption and ethanol concentrations measured in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol dependent and nondependent C57BL/6J mice. Mice were offered ethanol in a two-bottle choice; limited access paradigm and consummatory behavior was monitored with lickometers. After baseline intake stabilized, mice(More)
Using a well-established model of ethanol dependence and relapse, this study examined adaptations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and their role in regulating voluntary ethanol drinking. Mice were first trained to drink ethanol in a free-choice, limited access (2 h/day) paradigm. One group (EtOH mice) received repeated weekly(More)
Our objective was to determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), previously shown to ameliorate several pathological features of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) in a SCID mouse model, would also reduce additional established pathological features of HIV: cognitive dysfunction, TNF-alpha, production, and reduced MAP-2 expression. SCID mice with HIVE(More)
Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been reported to alter the reward value of abused substances such as alcohol and cocaine as well as neural circuitry underlying reward. The role of GDNF in reward was further characterized in the present study using operant procedures to determine the value of a natural reward, sucrose, in GDNF(More)
Drug addiction involves complex interactions between pharmacology and learning in genetically susceptible individuals. Members of the Homer gene family are regulated by acute and chronic cocaine administration. Here, we report that deletion of Homer1 or Homer2 in mice caused the same increase in sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion, conditioned reward,(More)
The cellular mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction are poorly understood. In several brain areas, ethanol depresses glutamatergic excitatory transmission, but how it affects excitatory synapses on dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a crucial site for the development of drug addiction, is not known. We report here that in midbrain slices(More)
PURPOSE Many abusers of dl-methylphenidate co-abuse ethanol. The present animal study examined behavioral effects of oral or transdermal DL-methylphenidate in combination with a high, depressive dose of ethanol to model co-abuse. METHODS Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice was recorded for 3 h following dosing with either oral DL-methylphenidate (7.5(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is common in children and adults. Concerns regarding abuse of MPH prompted studies to better understand its pharmacology. We used an established drug discrimination task to determine whether MPH could be discriminated by C57BL/6J (B6) mice. B6 mice learned to discriminate cues(More)